Session Chair: Markus Pagels, Schlumberger; Mohammed Bataweel, Saudi Aramco
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) can greatly improve extraction efficiency. EOR is a very broad term. Many techniques are used to increase the amount of oil produced from a reservoir. Examples are gas injection (e.g. CO2 or light hydrocarbons), water or polymer flooding, in-situ combustion, injection of specialised microbes, or combinations of the measures. All these techniques have benefits as well as potential for formation damage. Polymers can clog pore throats; added surfactants can change the wettability of the rock in an unwanted fashion. Injected CO2 can dissolve formation cement, weakening the reservoir structure. Incompatibility issues can occur when aqueous solutions disturb the chemical and physical equilibrium between reservoir fluids and rock minerals (e.g. forming of emulsions or deposits). Identification of formation damage potential and its avoidance must have priority over formation damage mitigation measures.
This session will discuss formation damage associated with EOR techniques and measures to avoid or mitigate this damage.
Session Chairs: Theo Stanitzek, AkzoNobel; Yahia Ait Hamlat, Trican Well Service
Stimulation technologies are used to overcome inflow impairments due to formation damage and to increase the productivity of reservoirs. Fracturing and matrix acidising treatments are the main techniques used to overcome the near wellbore damage. The heterogeneous nature of the reservoirs, their quality and composition, available fluids technologies and equipment, all together represent a challenge for our industry.
This session will aim to achieve:
Session Chairs: Michael Byrne, Senergy; Rifat Kayumov, Schlumberger
Solid particles and incompatibility with base fluid in the drilling and completion fluids tend to decrease the pore volume and effective permeability of the productive formation. Damage can occur near the wellbore face (easier to repair) or deep into the rock (harder to repair) and can be caused by several mechanisms: (1) physical plugging of pores by mud solids, (2) alteration of reservoir rock wettability, (3) precipitation of insoluble materials in pore spaces, (4) clay swelling in pore spaces, (5) migration of fines into pore throats, and (6) emulsion formation and blockage from an immobile phase. The aim of this session is to share the knowledge and experience of how to minimise drilling and completion induced formation damage by using fluids that are specially formulated to avoid damage to the formation when drilling or completing pay zones.
Session Chairs: Kosta J. Leontaritis, AsphWax; Saleh Al-Mutairi, Chevron
Testing hypotheses on formation damage and its mitigation in the field is often not feasible and very expensive. Modelling of formation damage, i.e. finding appropriate algorithms and equations representing damage mechanisms, and simulation of mitigation efforts can be an alternative approach. Many scenarios can be tested without causing any real damage to a reservoir. An optimised solution for the given formation can be found with input from field data and laboratory testing. Every simulation is only as good as the input data used. This session aims to present new approaches to modelling and simulation of formation damage and its mitigation.
Session Chairs: Niall Fleming, Statoil; Ryan McLaughlin, Corex
Formation damage has the potential to occur on any well at anytime during hydrocarbon exploration and recovery phases. The key to preventing formation damage is to first understand the potential risk for damage occurring in the field through diagnostic analysis such as laboratory and simulation practices. In this session we aim to explore the various approaches taken to mitigate against formation damage through an integrated approach from initial fluid selection to field response.
Session Chairs: Ahmed Al-Aleeli, ADMA-OPCO; Rosalvina Guimerans, Weatherford
Interaction between minerals and fluids may cause solids to form in the wellbore. These solids could be organic, like asphaltene and/or wax, or inorganic like carbonate and/or sulphate. This session will mainly focus on diagnostic tests which will determine the formation of solids and its nature as well as possible chemical remediation. Formation damage simulation as a complementary part of the diagnostic and remediation will also be presented in this session.