Sunday, July 08
Monday, July 09
Whether in a low commodity price environment or not, every technology needs to be evaluated in light of how much value it potentially adds. The application of geomechanics – analyses, modeling and monitoring – likewise needs to pass a value proposition review. In this session, consideration of the value of geomechanics in drilling and completions operations is addressed. Further, successful justifications of geomechanics efforts are also reviewed and discussed.
In the field of Geomechanics people often refer to the Global Stress Map, which can be used to provide a very good analysis of tectonic related stress direction and provide an idea of relative or expected stress magnitudes.
Regionally and locally, however, structural features, faults and even local natural fracturing can have a very significant impact on local Geomechanical properties including stress direction and stress magnitude. From a field planning and development perspective, inclusion of local features and temporal domains can be critical to understand local conditions and enable one to capture and understand local variations in principle stress directions, local fault regime and pore pressure.
Tuesday, July 10
The geomechanical model integrates information from multiple sources to capture geometry, stresses, pore pressure and mechanical properties variation in a volume. This session includes different procedures and numerical tools to include seismic elastic inversion and attributes, structural geology, sedimentology, rock physics, logs and rock mechanics laboratory data to build a 3D description of geomechanical parameters consistent with measurements at the well level and also with principles of geomechanical and geological analysis.
The value obtained from geomechanical analysis and modeling is directly affected by the quality of calibration data from sensors and technologies at various locations and times, and advancement in computational methods. This session will provide the opportunity to discuss state-of-the-art and future technological achievements and missed opportunities to enhance geomechanical understanding and prepare for better decision making throughout the life of the field.
Wednesday, July 11
Nowadays, reservoir heterogeneity and anisotropy are the rule rather than the exception. Issues related to rock heterogeneity, scale of measurements, and limited availability of data pose significant challenges to economics of reservoir development underscoring the need for quantifying uncertainty in reservoir geomechanical properties and risk in drilling and completion design.
The geochemistry of rock formations can be of critical importance to rock mechanical properties. Upon exposure to fluids, rocks are often chemically modified through ion-exchange, changes in the water content of the mineralogical components to the formation, pore-plugging and changes in swelling pressures. This session is concerned with the chemical interaction of the external fluids and rock fabric such that the elastic/plastic properties and stiffness are changed causing both mechanical enhancements and/or failures may result.
Examples of failure mechanisms that are observed are witnessed in sanding due to sandstone acidizing and clay swelling when certain mineralogies of shales are exposed to aqueous fluids. These situations often result in wellbore breakouts and wellbore instability. Nonlinearity of elastic properties and reduction in stiffness may cause compaction and pore-collapse. Capillary strength may be destroyed due to water encroachment and critically stressed natural fractures may shear due to rock-fluid interaction.
Constructive mechanisms from fluid chemistry can also be used to enhance rock mechanical properties. In this regard, examples of enhancements of wellbore stability have been witnessed in the use of various silicates and nanosilicas for pore-plugging and clay inhibition. Wellbore construction fluids can be modified to include these chemical agents to enhance wellbore stability.
Thursday, July 12
What is implied by simple vs. complex modeling; what are the trade-offs - time, cost, validity, data availablity…? Are the 'old' analytic approaches dead? Are complex models too complicated to run? With the advent of data-mining, do you even need models based on underlying mechanistic fundamentals? Are these approaches mutally exclusive? How can one inform the other, or, perhaps, be combined to be truly fit-for-purpose?
Whether they are developed as a conventional or unconventional, all hydrocarbons are originally deposited in source rocks. The “unconventional” term is typically applied for source rock development as well as other formations with complexities requiring special technologies without which economic viability cannot be accomplished. These formations are typically very tight with large heterogeneity, high anisotropy and abnormal pore pressure creating scale dependence that require better understanding in order to drill and complete safely and efficiently. Natural fractures with an increasing degree of maturity resulting from alteration in drilling, completions, hydraulic fracture stimulation and clean-up play a key role in the dynamic permeability of the reservoir system. In this session, these complexities and potential for providing technologies both for conventional and unconventional reservoirs from exploration to drilling, completions and stimulation, will be discussed. Specifically, the measurement and understanding of fundamental parameters such as pore pressure, rock fabric, geomechanical properties and stress dependent permeability with respect to drilling and completion applications will be discussed.
Friday, July 13
This session will reflect on what has been discussed, during the forum, to provide a platform on 1) what has been achieved, 2) what have we missed and 3) what should we plan for next. Considering that “The use of geomechanics to maximize operation value”, was the main theme of this forum; how do we answer the above questions based on this theme. This session is very important as our next SPE forum on geomechanics will be based on this discussion.