SPE Workshop: Sour Gas Injection into Carbonate Reservoirs 13 - 14 Mar 2018 Atyrau, Kazakhstan


Tuesday, March 13

08:00 - 09:00
09:00 - 09:10
09:10 - 09:40
Opening Keynote Speech
Speaker(s) Ms. Eimear Bonner, General Manager in Operations, TCO
09:40 - 11:10
Session 1: Characterisation of Carbonate Rocks for Gas Injection Projects
Session Chairpersons Ning Liu, TCO; Brian Evans, NCOC

Speakers include: 

  • Zengxing, Petro China, "Reservoir inversion and geologic modeling of Kashagan"
  • Robert Mallan, Chevron, "New matrix permeability upscaling workflow for heterogenous carbonate reservoirs "
  • Karatalov, NCOC, "Discreet Fracture Network (DFN) Modeling Aided Reservoir Characterization"


Favourable reservoir characteristics in the subject reservoir is one of the key requirements for successful gas injection project. Lateral and vertical heterogeneities typically control the gas movement in the reservoir. Characterization of carbonate reservoirs is particularly challenging due to complex post-depositional alterations of rock properties and potential presence of fractures and karsts at varying scales. In this session, advancements and latest techniques in carbonate reservoir characterization will be discussed with a focus on potential impact on gas injection performance and prediction (e.g. modern fracture characterization techniques). 



11:10 - 11:40
11:40 - 13:10
Session 2: Advancements in Geologic Modeling and Simulation of Highly Heterogeneous Carbonate Reservoirs
Session Chairpersons Zhibek Shaimardan, Shell; Arman Jamankulov, Shell

Speakers include: 

  • Julio De la Colina, Chevron, "Applied geologic modeling workflows and technologies for complex and heterogeneous carbonate platform reservoirs"
  • Marat Shaykhattarov , Schlumberger, "Numerical Simulation of Carbonate Matrix Stimulation"
  • Bakytzhan Kaliyev and Alibek Kassenov, KPO, "Characterisation of Gas Re-Injection at Karachaganak Field, Kazakhstan"  


More powerful computing hardware and new software advancements in modeling geologic features and associated fluid flow in complex carbonate reservoirs are becoming available to technical professionals.  This session will discuss the latest hardware and software applications and state of the art examples of geologic modeling and simulation applicable to studies of sour gas injection in highly heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs. 

13:10 - 14:10
14:10 - 15:40
Session 3: Reservoir Surveillance and Monitoring Techniques for Improved Prediction of Gas Injection Performance
Session Chairpersons Beibit Akbayev, Schlumberger; Bolat Amangaliyev, TCO

Speakers include: 

  • Xu Anzhu, Petro China, "Influence of Solution Sour Gas Reinjection on Oil Phase Behavior and Physical Property Changes for Carbonate oil Reservoir with Abnormal High Pressure"
  • Arlen Sarsekov, ADNOC, "Integrated workflow of GOR Management towards Sustainable Oil Production"
  • Beibit Akbayev, Schlumberger, "Continuous H2S measurement using VX MPFM and its application for sour gas injection reservoirs"


Importance of extensive, relevant and timely reservoir surveillance data captured both before and after gas injection commencement cannot be underestimated. An example of pre-injection data that could be very useful to assess interwell connectivity is pressure interference and/or pulse testing.  Post injection, data from multiphase flow meters for GOR monitoring and potential H2S tracking capability could be used to detect gas breakthrough. Periodic sampling for compositional changes, tracers, saturation logs and other surveillance methods have helped to calibrate dynamic models and improve our ability to predict future gas injection performance. This session will demonstrate examples of particular surveillance methods that have improved our subsurface understanding.

15:40 - 16:00
16:00 - 17:30
Session 4: Well Injectivity Deterioration and Mitigations
Session Chairpersons Aizhana Jussupbekova, NCOC; Benjamin Madeley, KPO

Speakers include:

  • Ruiting Wu, Chevron, "Tengiz Sour Gas Injection Modeling: A Geo-mechanics Approach to Investigate Injectivity Conditions and Eliminate Gas Breakthrough"
  • Ilya Kuznetsov, TCO, "Well Integrity Portal"
  • Leonid Anisimov and Sergey Deliya, Lukoil and RITEK, "Sour gas re-injection at the Russian Sector of the Caspian Region"


With a limited number of injection wells and a very high compressor discharge volumes, well Injectivity could become a bottleneck. Establishing and maintaining high well Injectivity is very important to sustain injection, and therefore, production levels at maximum. This session will discuss examples of Injectivity deterioration/degradation over time and proposed mitigations options. 

17:30 - 17:45

Wednesday, March 14

08:30 - 08:40
08:40 - 10:10
Session 5: Selection Process for Sour Gas Injection Wells: Location, Spacing and Pattern Considerations
Session Chairpersons David Barge, TCO; Almazhay Zhanbyrbay, KMG

Speakers include: 

  • Imelda Johnson, Chevron, "Reservoir characterization of a complex carbonate system: example from the Karachaganak Field, Kazakhstan"
  • Yousef Ghomian, TCO, "Flood Design Considerations for Coupled EOR and Sour Gas disposal Projects"
  • Ning Liu, TCO, "Quantifying Value of Information using Ensemble Variance Analysis"
  • Ralf Schluz, Petroleum Development Oman, "Miscible Sour Gas Injection into Carbonate Reservoirs in South Oman: Concept Selection for optimised development and well spacing"


Selection of injection well location and spacing is a very important decision for establishing effective sweep efficiency and maximizing ultimate recovery. One consideration is that well injectors typically have to be on an approved pattern. Availability of favourable reservoir properties as well as overall reservoir depletion strategy dictates the choice of optimum injector location. This session will discuss key considerations during selection of sour gas injection wells.

10:10 - 10:40
10:40 - 12:10
Session 6: Sour Gas Injection Compression Equipment and Compressors: Improvements in Operability and Performance, and Critical Design Considerations
Session Chairpersons Nurkenay Bulekbayeva, KPO; Hamish Blackwood, Fluor

Speakers include

  • Tanat Sultanov, KPO, "Impact of gas dehydration on performance of Sour Gas Injection"
  • Steve Hallt, Fluor, "Considerations in the Selection of Large Variable Speed Electrical Motor Compressor Drives"
  • Gennady Aijanov, KPO, "Lessons learnt from 15 years of Sour Gas Injection in Karachaganak: from design to smooth operation today"


Reliable compressor performance is one of the key performance areas of successful sour gas injection projects. There is considerable experience now in Kazakhstan, operating and optimizing performance of compressors which is unique given the high H2S, high pressure and temperature conditions encountered. This is a sharing session for the achievements in improving operability and uptime of sour gas injection compressors. 

12:10 - 13:10
13:10 - 14:40
Session 7: HSE in Design and Operation of Sour Gas Facilities
Session Chairpersons Ilyas Saurbayev, NCOC; Dauren Turebayev , TCO

Speakers include: 

  • Nishin Harris, Fluor, "Inherently Safer Design in Sour Service Gas Processing Facilities"
  • TBC, NCOC, "Gas Detection Optimization with CFD Analysis to Enhance Plant Availability"
  • Jim Salter, Chevron, "Making Sour Gas Injection Safer By Design: Using Quantitative Risk Screening (QRS) and Inherently Safer Design during FEED"


The fact that H2S is lethal at low concentrations and highly corrosive in the presence of CO2 and/or (salty) water indicates that safety is a main driver in the design and operation of sour gas facilities. This in fact presents many challenges in areas such as data gathering and others. This session will discuss HSE related aspects for sour gas facilities.

14:40 - 15:10
15:10 - 16:10
Panel Discussion: Opportunities to Improve Sour Gas Injection Performance
Moderator(s) Daulet Ospan, NCOC
Speaker(s) Brian Scott Evans NCOC; David Barge, TCO; Abdalla Abed, ADNOC; Tamer Saada, KPO

Senior technical managers from major operators and service companies will share their views on best practices, and areas for technology advancement in the next 5-10 years to improve sour gas injection performance. The audience will be engaged in the inspiring discussion, and gain the strategic vision for continued collaboration

16:10 - 16:30