Perry Says Trump Should Renegotiate, Not Exit, Paris Accord
Energy Secretary Rick Perry became the latest senior member of President Donald Trump’s administration to publicly advocate for staying in the Paris climate accord, saying the US should renegotiate the deal and push European nations to take on a larger share of emissions reductions.
“I’m not going to tell the president of the United States to walk away from the Paris accord,” Perry said at the Bloomberg New Energy Finance conference in New York on 25 April. “I will say that we need to renegotiate it.”
The remark puts Perry among a small group of Trump advisers who favor sticking with the landmark United Nations agreement, which the president vowed to scrap during his campaign. The debate has largely played out behind closed doors, with environmental chief Scott Pruitt and top strategist Steve Bannon pushing for a pullout while White House adviser Jared Kushner and Secretary of State Rex Tillerson advocate sticking with the deal.
The White House has said it will decide by next month what to do with the deal involving more than 190 nations struck in the French capital in 2015. New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman joined a group of 14 state attorneys in urging Trump to reconfirm US involvement in the Paris deal, saying fighting pollution is a public health matter.
Norway’s Statoil Plays Down Risks Ahead of Arctic Drilling
Norway’s Statoil on 24 April played down concerns that drilling in the Arctic is risky, days before it starts its drilling campaign in the Barents Sea, where the country believes around half of its remaining resources could be located.
The company logo of Statoil is seen during a company results presentation in London, 6 February 2015. Credit: Toby Melville/Reuters.
Despite opposition from environmentalists, the company plans to drill five wells in the Norwegian sector of the Barents Sea, including Korpfjell, which will be the world’s northernmost well and in a formerly disputed border area with Russia
“We will start drilling the first well, Blaamann, during May … followed by Kayak, Gemini (Nord), Korpfjell, and Koigen (Central),” said a Statoil spokesman, adding each might take about a month to drill.
All the wells are in areas free of sea ice thanks to the warm Gulf Stream, with sea and wind conditions similar to the North Sea, and some 250 miles away from the “ice edge zone”—where at least 10% of the sea is covered by ice.
“All wells will be drilled so far south of the existing ice that, in the event of any spillage, no oil would never reach the marginal ice zone,” Statoil said.
Even in winter, there have only been 10 days of ice in the last 14 years in the areas where drilling is planned, it said.
Greenpeace, which is taking the Norwegian government to court over Arctic drilling plans, said any permanent oil platforms in the region would be particularly risky.
“Both the Korpfjell and Koigen Central licenses are within the reach of the historic marginal sea ice edge for the last 30 years,” Truls Gulowsen, head of Greenpeace in Norway, said.
“Statoil should not drill in the Barents Sea because of the pending legal case, because of environmental risk, and because the world doesn’t need more oil,” he said.
Statoil said the statistical probability of a blowout, an uncontrolled oil spill from a well, was 0.014%—or one for every 7,100 exploration wells.
The Netherlands will reduce production of its Groningen gas field by 10% from October to limit the risk of earthquakes, the country’s economy minister said in a letter to parliament on 18 April.
Output has been cut several times from 53.9 billion cubic meters in 2013 to 24 billion cubic meters as criticism mounted that Dutch authorities had failed to adequately assess the risk to citizens from earthquakes caused by production at Europe’s biggest field.
How Carbon Offsets Increase Organizational Sustainability
Has your company or organization invested in carbon offsets? Carbon offsets are proving an important tool for companies that want to reduce the effect of their carbon footprint. An offset is achieved through the funding of a “green project” that reduces emissions of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases (e.g., nitrous oxide, methane) in the earth’s atmosphere in order to compensate for or diminish the effect of emissions made through other projects.
The end goal of carbon offsets is to achieve an overall reduction in carbon emissions over time, supporting the move to a lower carbon economy, through the funding of a significant number of green projects. A certificate is provided representing the reduction of one metric ton (2,205 lbm) of greenhouse gas emissions.
Sustainability Benefits for Global Organizations Carbon offsets can achieve far more than simply reducing a company’s carbon footprint. They can greatly enhance the sustainability story of global companies, especially those in industries known to produce a high level of emissions (e.g., oil and gas, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, metals, and mining). Sustainability goals vary from company to company and industry to industry. The Clean Development Mechanism, defined by the Kyoto protocol, identifies more than 200 types of projects eligible for carbon offsets. Projects are grouped into five categories: renewable energy, methane abatement, energy efficiency, reforestation, and fuel switching.
Central to improving a company’s sustainability story is the need to carefully choose which emission reduction projects best reflect a company’s overall mission, values, and vision. Realize too that offset projects undertaken by companies often result in additional community benefits such as improved air and water quality or a better overall quality of life. These cobenefits should be carefully considered when choosing a carbon offset project.
Safeguarding Marine Life and the World’s Energy Future
According to the International Energy Agency, oil and gas will still be needed in 2040 to meet about half of the world’s growing energy needs—just as they do now. And, as the World Ocean Review reports, about one-third of oil and gas production comes from offshore.
Because marine seismic surveys are critical in finding offshore oil and gas, The International Association of Oil and Gas Producers and the International Association of Geophysical Contractors have collaborated on a position paper that assesses the effect of such work on marine mammals.
This joint report concludes that “After more than 50 years of worldwide seismic surveys and more than 15 years of extensive peer-reviewed scientific research, there remains no evidence that sound from properly mitigated seismic surveys has had any significant impact on any marine populations.”
The paper provides insights into the various aspects of marine sound, the techniques of seismic surveying and the mitigation measures in place to minimize any negative effect that oil and gas seismic work might have on marine populations. These measures include
Preprogram planning that includes risk assessments and management
Sound modeling that helps to avoid surveying in specific locations and during specific periods that might have particular sensitivity for some marine life
Soft-start techniques that involve a gradual increase in the loudness of the sound source to allow animals to move away as the sound grows louder
Exclusion zones of at least 500 m before seismic activity begins
Visual monitoring that alerts operators to any breach of an exclusion zone
Towed passive acoustic monitoring that detects marine mammal vocalizations before seismic work begins
Exxon Urges Trump To Keep US in Paris Climate Accord
ExxonMobil, the largest American oil group, has written to the Trump administration urging it to keep the US in the Paris climate accord agreed at the end of 2015.
The letter was sent last week, but has emerged as Trump is preparing to announce executive orders beginning a rollback of several of Barack Obama’s climate policies, while leaving the question of Paris open.
Trump administration officials have said a decision on participation in Paris is still “under discussion” and have been soliciting views from US energy companies.
Exxon argues in its letter that there are several reasons for the US to stay in the Paris accord, including the opportunity to support greater use of natural gas, which creates lower carbon dioxide emissions than coal when burnt for power generation.
A New Nanocomposite Forward Osmosis Membrane Custom-Designed for Treating Shale Gas Waste Water
Managing the waste water discharged from oil and shale gas fields is a big challenge because this kind of wastewater is normally polluted by high contents of both oils and salts. Conventional pressure-driven membranes experience little success for treating this waste water because of either severe membrane fouling or incapability of desalination.
Diagram of simultaneous oil/water separation and desalination by hydrogel/GO FO membrane. Credit: Detao Qin.
This study presents the design of a new nanocomposite forward osmosis (FO) membrane for accomplishing simultaneous oil/water separation and desalination. This nanocomposite FO membrane is composed of an oil-repelling and salt-rejecting hydrogel selective layer on top of a graphene-oxide- (GO) nanosheets-infused polymeric support layer. The hydrogel selective layer demonstrates strong underwater oleophobicity that leads to superior antifouling capability under various oil/water emulsions, and the infused GO in the support layer can significantly mitigate internal concentration polarization through reducing FO membrane structural parameter by as much as 20%.
Compared with commercial FO membrane, this new FO membrane demonstrates more than three times higher water flux, higher removals for oil and salts (>99.9% for oil and >99.7% for multivalent ions), and significantly lower fouling tendency when investigated with simulated shale gas wastewater. These combined merits will endorse this new FO membrane with wide applications in treating highly saline and oily wastewaters.
Trump Seeks Input From US Energy Companies on Paris Climate Pact
President Donald Trump’s administration has been contacting US energy companies to ask them about their views on the UN global climate accord, according to two sources with knowledge of the effort, a sign Trump is reconsidering his 2016 campaign pledge to back out of the deal.
A coal miner worker shakes hands with US President Donald Trump in this 16 February file photo as Trump prepares to sign Resolution 38, which nullifies the “stream protection rule” addressing the affects of surface coal mining operations on surface water, groundwater, and the productivity of mining operations sites. Credit: Reuters/Carlos Barria.
The sources, who asked not to be named because they are not authorized to speak publicly on the subject, said many of the companies reached by the administration had said they would prefer the United States remain in the pact but would also support reducing US commitments in the deal.
The accord, agreed by nearly 200 countries in Paris in 2015, would limit planetary warming in part by slashing carbon dioxide and other emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. As part of the deal, the United States committed to reducing its emissions by between 26 and 28% below 2005 levels by 2025.
The sources did not name the companies contacted.
One of the sources said the companies were “publicly traded fossil fuel companies” and added the White House would consider their input in making a decision on the Paris accord shortly. The source said the White House has been leading the discussions with the fossil fuel companies and the State Department, which represents the United States in climate negotiations, had not taken part.
A White House official declined to comment.
Trump has called climate change a hoax and vowed during his campaign for the White House to “cancel the Paris Climate Agreement” within 100 days, claiming it would be too costly for the US economy.
Since being elected he has been mostly quiet on the issue. In a New York Times interview in November, he said he would keep an open mind about the Paris deal. He and members of his family and inner circle also met with Al Gore, climate change advocate and former vice president, in December.
Officials for Exxon Mobil, ConocoPhillips, Chevron, Peabody Energy, and others did not immediately comment when asked if they had been contacted by the White House about the Paris accord.
But several, including Exxon Mobil and ConocoPhillips, have expressed public support for the pact. The World Coal Association, which represents Peabody and other miners, has also said it supports the deal.
Water Poses Problems for the Energy Industry in the Permian
Wastewater injection faces an uncertain future in West Texas’ prolific Permian basin, and companies working there will have to consider how else to dispose of produced water, said Alex Archila, the asset president of shale at BHP Billiton, a mining and exploration company.
“Water, as I said of the Permian, will be a huge issue past a certain amount that you can inject,” said Archila. “And then it will be other solutions that the industry will need to figure out.”
BHP Billiton is a Melbourne-based company with a presence in Houston and land in the Permian.
Archila, who spoke on a panel at the CERAweek energy conference, said companies working in the Permian face two challenges when it comes to water: getting enough water for hydraulic fracturing and getting rid of underground water released by the process.
Statoil’s new climate roadmap details its targets for CO2 emission reductions and improved carbon intensity and energy efficiency as well as profitable growth in renewables and low-carbon solutions.
The CO2 emissions from Statoil’s oil and gas production are already at a low level compared with the industry average. With the roadmap, Statoil introduces a new portfolio target for CO2 emissions per barrel produced, delivering 20% reductions by 2030—from 10 kg to 8 kg—well below the industry average.
“The world needs affordable and reliable oil and gas for decades to come. At the same time, it needs to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Statoil is committed to developing its business in support of the ambitions of the Paris agreement. We believe that being able to produce oil and gas with lower emissions while also growing in profitable renewables will give competitive advantages and provide attractive business opportunities in the transition to a low carbon economy,” says Eldar Sætre, Statoil’s president and CEO.
New Reusable Material Pulls Oil From Water Column, Could Revolutionize Spill Cleanup
When the Deepwater Horizon drilling pipe blew out 7 years ago, beginning the worst oil spill in US history, those in charge of the recovery discovered a new wrinkle: The oil bubbling from the sea floor wasn’t all collecting on the surface where it could be skimmed or burned. Some of it was forming a plume and drifting through the ocean under the surface.
Now, scientists at the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have invented a new foam, called Oleo Sponge, that addresses this problem. The material not only easily adsorbs oil from water but also is reusable and can pull dispersed oil from the entire water column—not just the surface.
The Oleo Sponge can be wrung out, the oil collected, and the material reused. It has stood up to dozens of cycles so far without breaking down. Credit: Mark Lopez/Argonne National Laboratory.
“The Oleo Sponge offers a set of possibilities that, as far as we know, are unprecedented,” said coinventor Seth Darling, a scientist with Argonne’s Center for Nanoscale Materials and a fellow of the University of Chicago’s Institute for Molecular Engineering.
“We already have a library of molecules that can grab oil, but the problem is how to get them into a useful structure and bind them there permanently.”
The scientists started out with common polyurethane foam, used in furniture cushions and home insulation. This foam has lots of nooks and crannies, like an English muffin, that could provide ample surface area to grab oil; but, the foam needed a new surface chemistry in order to firmly attach the oil-loving molecules.
Previously, Darling and fellow Argonne chemist Jeff Elam had developed a technique called sequential infiltration synthesis, or SIS, which can be used to infuse hard metal-oxide atoms within complicated nanostructures.
After some trial and error, they found a way to adapt the technique to grow an extremely thin layer of metal-oxide primer near the foam’s interior surfaces. This serves as the perfect glue for attaching the oil-loving molecules, which are deposited in a second step; they hold onto the metal-oxide layer with one end and reach out to grab oil molecules with the other.
The result is Oleo Sponge, a block of foam that easily adsorbs oil from the water. The material, which looks a bit like an outdoor seat cushion, can be wrung out to be reused—and the oil itself recovered.
At tests at a giant seawater tank in New Jersey called Ohmsett, the National Oil Spill Response Research and Renewable Energy Test Facility, the Oleo Sponge successfully collected diesel and crude oil from both below and on the water surface.
Argonne scientist Seth Darling, who coinvented the material, watches as the Oleo Sponge collects dark brown oil from the water during tests at Ohmsett. Credit: Mark Lopez/Argonne National Laboratory.
“The material is extremely sturdy. We’ve run dozens to hundreds of tests, wringing it out each time, and we have yet to see it break down at all,” Darling said.
Oleo Sponge also potentially could be used to clean harbors and ports routinely, where diesel and oil tend to accumulate from ship traffic, said John Harvey, a business development executive with Argonne’s Technology Development and Commercialization division.
Elam, Darling, and the rest of the team are continuing to develop the technology.
“The technique offers enormous flexibility and can be adapted to other types of cleanup besides oil in seawater. You could attach a different molecule to grab any specific substance you need,” Elam said.
Argonne scientists Anil Mane, Joseph Libera, and postdoctoral researcher Edward Barry also contributed to the development of the Oleo Sponge. Preliminary results were published in a study in the Journal of Materials Chemistry A, titled “Advanced Oil Sorbents Using Sequential Infiltration Synthesis.”
The research was funded by the US Coast Guard and the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement. The team used resources of the Center for Nanoscale Materials, a DOE Office of Science User Facility, in the development of the material.