So-called multiscale methods represent a new avenue of research, one that may provide a bridge between the aforementioned push and pull of refinement resulting from the needs of different decision makers. Multiscale, which has been the subject of ongoing study over the past decade, knits together geometrical quantities (dimensional scale) with tailored computational schemas (numerical scale). This multifaceted multiscale concept may offer a means to construct an accurate coarser-scaled model, one honoring the attributes of the fine-scale heterogeneous geological data from both numerical and spatial standpoints.
Our problem is that we are dealing with multiphase, multicomponent fluids whose compositions change spatially and temporally inside imperfectly understood heterogeneous reservoirs whose characteristics also change spatially and temporally. We see the results of this uncertainty all around us. Wells do not produce as expected, equipment runs are inconsistent, reserves estimates are constantly revised. A better approach is to recognize that we are working in a world of uncertainty. At a minimum, create a worst case, a best case, and a most-likely case.
Are we seeing the demise of unconventional developments? No, clearly not. The unconventional industry is adapting to deliver the energy demands of the future despite the low oil price. The key frontiers or challenges for the unconventional industry to grow are technological, geographical, commercial, and geological. This feature highlights some of these key frontiers being explored around the world to ensure that the unconventional industry does not just survive but thrives.
There are many areas and applications of CO2 in the oil and gas industry. CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is the bedrock and the mainstay in our application portfolio. A lot has been published in that area. At present, there remain a number of challenges with CO2 EOR. These include gravity override, poor sweep efficiency, and economic factors. Considerable work and research are ongoing to address all of these challenges.