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Technology Applications

Chris Carpenter, JPT Technology Editor

Pumping-Solution System

The Moyno Tri-Phaze System is an engineered multiphase pumping solution that transfers fluid containing any combination of gas, liquid, and solids without emulsification for increased efficiency of downstream separation. The Tri-Phaze System allows the fluid produced at the wellsite, including oil, water, gas, and abrasive solid particles, to be transported simultaneously through one pipeline to a central processing station (Fig. 1). Its abrasion-resistant pumping elements allow for transfer of sandy fluid without excessive wear. This packaged system represents minimal environmental impact because of its smaller footprint, lower noise emissions, and higher efficiency when compared with alternative technologies. Additional advantages include the efficient handling of gas void fractions up to 95%, a low-shear pumping action that preserves each fluid’s characteristics, and increased oil and gas production on marginal wells by means of decreasing bottomhole pressure. The system can be readily moved from wellsite to wellsite, potentially reducing the number of required systems, while control of the multiphase pumping system can be achieved at the wellsite or remotely. An automation-control package manages operations, records and reports data, and optimizes communications.

Rigless Technology

Offshore platforms require systems that can safely and efficiently conduct critical well abandonment and late-stage intervention operations to revitalize wells and extend productivity. Weather­ford recently introduced the Rig-Free 35/1000 Light-Duty Pulling and Jacking Unit, a cost-effective alternative to rigs and snubbing units (Fig. 2). This unit meets American Petroleum Institute 4F specifications and is ideal for conductor removal. The unit uses a range of technologies and resources to address operational challenges. With its small footprint, light weight, and modular design, the unit is easy to transport and is suited for platforms with space and structural limits, and for downgraded, damaged, or nonexistent derricks. The unit has a hydraulically powered telescoping mast that sits directly above the well center and an integrated jacking system and power swivel stand that require no additional rig-up time. With a self-clamping system, the unit can skid from well to well, providing flexibility to accommodate changes in well conditions. A blowout preventer (BOP) is placed under the unit, making it fully compliant with regulatory requirements. When skidding between wells, the BOP can be disconnected and moved with the unit for mobilization efficiency and cost savings.

Volumetric-Measurement System

Halliburton introduced the Core-Vault system, a solution that provides a more-accurate volumetric picture of the amount of oil and gas trapped in unconventional reservoir rocks. The system allows operators to contain and bring to surface the reservoir fluids within rock samples, allowing for measurement of the volume of hydrocarbons in place (Fig. 3). Traditional coring tools allowed 50 to 70% of the hydrocarbons to escape from the rock as the samples depressurized on their way to the surface. Building a model of the volume of oil and gas in a reservoir therefore required operators to estimate this fluid loss rather than measure the fluids in place, and the estimates were often inaccurate.  By preserving 100% of the fluids within the core sample, the CoreVault system allows for an improved understanding of potential production within the reservoir. The CoreVault system, when combined with a rotary sidewall-coring tool, allows up to 10 cores to be sealed at reservoir conditions in a single wireline run, saving time when compared with full-hole coring and allowing more targeted samples to be taken.

Mobile Inspection Tablet

The Mobile Inspection Tablet from Inspection Oilfield Services (IOS) delivers technological solutions to tubular-integrity issues. The data-acquisition tablet uses intelligent inspection software to provide real-time evidence of pipe failures and repairs, which is then digitally archived for effortless retrieval through a Web portal (Fig. 4). The IOS tablet has the ability to log inspection results from any location, including a rig, yard, or shop. Both online and offline modes are supported for synchronizing data to the portal. The tablet has an imaging feature to add photos for failures, allowing for real-time or future review of specific asset conditions. Inspection reports, work orders, and invoices all link directly to a specific job. Recorded results are based on predefined inspection worksheets that are tailor-made for specific assets, such as drill tools, drillpipe, and tubulars. This process ensures that all critical information is captured and validated. Data are stored in a secure online archive, and information is searchable by invoice, asset serial number, work order, job, or status. The tablet simplifies paperwork, increases data integrity, and improves communication.

Shale Software

Integration of shale work flows is critical to improve the success of shale assets. Schlumberger announced the release of Petrel Shale, a customized user interface and tool set engineered for exploiting shale resources (Fig. 5). Petrel Shale has been designed specifically to address the integration challenge from exploration to production. Scalable and straightforward to deploy, Petrel Shale optimizes operations to increase capital efficiency. The Petrel Shale work flow is presented in a user-friendly way to increase productivity in evaluating and developing shale assets. For the first time, geoscientists can seamlessly integrate geological, geophysical, and production data to define sweet spots, automatically plan well locations, and analyze production trends. Customers are able to gain a greater understanding of how production relates to geology by linking the data and disciplines. Acreage is assessed by incorporating published data and comprehensive well-­database analysis. Petroleum-systems evaluation and risk tools deliver play analysis and a greater chance of successful mapping. Petrel Shale is easily extended from map- to model-based interpretations. It leverages the Petrel software platform to offer reliability, technology, and innovation in a fit-for-shale solution.

Hydraulic-Fracturing System

Tendeka launched its FracRight complete hydraulic-fracturing system, enabling the collection and analysis of stimulation data in unconventional reservoirs. The FracRight system is a fully integrated fracture-sleeve solution for selective multizone stimulation in openhole or cased-hole applications (Fig. 6). It enables the installation of multiple sleeves for each stage to be fractured, optimizing stimulation efficiency and production. The sleeves are shifted open by pumping a ball from surface, allowing for subsequent stimulation of the selected stage either from a single sleeve or a cluster of sleeves. FracRight allows users to verify isolation integrity, analyze the individual characteristics of each production interval, and make critical adjustments in the fracturing operation. The FracRight system can be integrated with Tendeka’s real-time distributed fiber-optic stimulation-­monitoring service to provide more-effective evaluation and management of multizone completions. The system gathers the information required to measure, model, and optimize the stimulation treatment and subsequent flowback and production profiles. The system also can be used in conjunction with Tendeka’s Quest software suite for the analysis and presentation of stimulation and production data.

Nylon Pipe

Invista introduced the Raptor nylon pipe, a nylon homogeneous single-wall line pipe that withstands temperatures up to 200°F and pressures up to 500 psi (Fig. 7). Raptor nylon pipe is quickly installed, and comes coiled in sections up to 2,000 ft in length that are ready for the ditch and suitable for applications ranging from multiphase flowlines to low-pressure natural-gas gathering and water transportation. Ease of installation is enhanced by reliable connections with standard butt-fusion technology and a range of available transition fittings. The product portfolio includes 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-in. iron-pipe sizes and standard dimension ratios of 7, 9, and 11. Raptor requires no derating for liquid hydrocarbons and has superior abrasion resistance compared with steel and high-density polyethylene; it also features better impact resistance than fiberglass, high-density-polyethylene, and composite pipes. Raptor nylon pipe has been installed, tested, and subjected to accelerated wear in varied environments to confirm its strength and durability. Raptor nylon pipe performs two to five times better than steel in abrasion resistance.

Intelligent-Well System

Wells with long horizontal laterals are sometimes susceptible to early water or gas breakthrough near the heel of the well. Premature breakthrough can quickly transform a healthy well into a water or gas producer, leaving hydrocarbons unrecovered in the reservoir. Baker Hughes recently introduced the MultiNode all-electric intelligent-well system to enable operators to monitor and remotely control an extended number of production zones in both cased and openhole completions. If water or gas breakthrough is detected in one part of the lateral, the active flow-control device (AFCD) in that zone can be choked back or closed completely to lock out water or gas (Fig. 8). Up to 27 AFCDs can be run in a wellbore and controlled from the surface with a single tubing-encased conductor cable. Each AFCD includes six customizable choke settings—including the open and closed positions—that can be adjusted from the surface. The surface controls also can be accessed by use of a supervisory control-and-data-acquisition interface to monitor and control production zones remotely from virtually anywhere. The all-electric intelligent-well system combats early water and gas breakthrough in long laterals and helps operators actively balance flow in production zones.

Escape and Rescue Systems

3M has expanded its personal-safety portfolio to include two new rescue devices designed to help protect people working at height. The 3M and DEUS Escape and Rescue Systems enable workers to steadily control their descent from heights up to 590 ft. The easy-to-use systems, which weigh less than 3 lbm, can be used to facilitate escape and rescue procedures for individuals and multiple stranded workers in a short time. The 3M and DEUS kits allow for both assisted rescue and self-rescue after a fall. The new escape and rescue systems are available with two controlled-descent options in the 3300 and 3700 devices. The 3300 device allows for rescue from heights up to 350 ft at a descent rate of 3 m/s (Fig. 9). The 3700 device has been third-party tested and certified to the American National Standards Institute standard and offers users a descent rate of 2 m/s from heights up to 590 ft.