JPT logo
SPE logo

Technology Applications

Chris Carpenter, JPT Technology Editor

Hand-Held Pressure Calibrator

The HPC40 Series handheld pressure calibrator from Crystal Engineering, a unit of Ametek, offers deadweight tester accuracy along with a host of user-friendly features that allow the handheld device to deliver laboratory accuracy to an on-site, field-usable instrument (Fig. 1). The HPC40 Series is suitable for calibrating pressures ranging from vacuum to 15,000 psi with accuracy of 0.035% of reading for all ranges. It is ideal for process-control applications, such as verification or calibration of pressure gauges, transducers, transmitters, pressure switches, and safety valves. A single HPC40 Series device can typically replace several gauges or calibrators. With the addition of a Crystal Engineering Advance Pressure Module, the calibrator can read up to three pressures using a single device and the differential pressure between any two. It is available in a single- or dual-sensor option, and it also can be used along with a reference temperature detector as a high-­accuracy thermometer. The HPC40 Series’ single-layer user interface has no deep menu structure, allowing tasks to be performed quickly and intuitively. Its intelligent memory slots allow the HPC40 Series to store up to five screens, simplifying recall of previous stored settings and user setups.

Composite Fracture Plug

A new plug from Weatherford enables faster run times, improved anchoring and sealing, and more-efficient millouts than traditional plugs in plug-and-­perforation completions. Manufactured with a proprietary blend of 97% composite material, the TruFrac composite fracture plug achieves run-in speeds of up to 500 ft/min (Fig. 2). Once in position, the composite lower slips provide the necessary anchoring force and the molded element system forms a strong seal. The plug is rated for use in environments with temperatures up to 300°F (149°C) and pressures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa). The composite material provides additional benefits: Each plug can be milled out in 10 to 15 minutes or less, and the small, lightweight cuttings help achieve a clean wellbore. These versatile plugs can be used to stimulate multiple zones in vertical, deviated, horizontal, or multilateral wells. The plugs are available in two sizes and with two ball-deployment options.

Dry Emulsifier

Georgia-Pacific Chemicals introduced the new XPLOR line of dry emulsifiers that combine performance with operational benefits in terms of efficiency and total use costs. The emulsifiers have demonstrated performance in diesel-, ­mineral-oil-, or synthetic-based drilling fluids. They are compatible with a variety of solvents, thus reducing the need to purchase multiple types of emulsifiers. Shipped in 25-lbm bags, the product is also easier to pour than traditional liquids in barrels, allowing for more-precise dosing. Use of XPLOR dry emulsifiers eliminates drum-transportation, cleaning, and disposal costs. Typical ­liquid emulsifiers may contain approximately 50% base oil, but XPLOR dry emulsifiers have a higher activity level. As a result, less emulsifier is required to treat a drilling fluid than with a ­liquid emulsifier. XPLOR dry emulsifiers have minimal resistance to flow, even at temperatures below freezing, so they are easier to work with in cold climates than conventional liquid emulsifiers that need to be hot-boxed, steamed, or jacketed in order to pour in frigid conditions.

Casing-Annulus Packer

TAM International introduced its 22-in. casing-annulus packer, LongCAP. The new LongCAP follows TAM’s recent design and qualification of a 22-in. port collar. Together, the LongCAP and port collar offer operators improved cement integrity to meet higher well-safety standards. TAM designed the 22-in. system for an international operator’s offshore project as a fit-for-purpose solution. LongCAP uses high-strength stainless-steel slats to reinforce the full length of the inflatable element from 3 to 10 ft (Fig. 3). The 22-in. LongCAP is International Organization for Standardization 14310 V6 qualified. The rigorous testing program involved multiple cycles of differential-pressure reversals from above and below the LongCAP packer set inside a 33-in. test fixture. The LongCAP element met or exceeded all test requirements.

Drilling-Platform Light-Emitting-Diode System

Eaton introduced its Pauluhn DLL Series linear light-emitting-diode (LED) system that combines reliability, flexibility, and energy efficiency for land-based and offshore drilling platforms. The new fixture features a rugged and durable design and flexible mounting options for high-vibration, high-impact, and hosedown conditions found in drilling environments (Fig. 4). The Pauluhn DLL linear LED, with a system efficiency of up to 130 lm/W, is specifically designed to replace fluorescent T12, T8, and T5HO lighting in land-based drilling and on offshore rigs. The fixture can also be retro­fitted easily into the mounts of existing Pauluhn DuraPro and MagnaPro fixtures, as well as Rig-A-Lite or Snelson fluorescent fixtures. The Pauluhn DLL linear LED fixture features a low-profile design under 3 in., a copper-free aluminum housing with epoxy-powder coating, and a polycarbonate or glass lens. The fixture will perform reliably in ambient operating temperatures of -40°C to +65°C. The DLL LED is also able to withstand 2,000 psi of hose pressure and high-vibration applications. The fixture comes with seven mounting options: ceiling, swivel, wall, flush, pole, back, and pendant. For added safety, the fixture is available with an optional emergency-battery 90-minute back-up and surge protection up to 10 kV.

Progressing-Cavity Pumps

Moyno’s high-performance 2000 Series pumps offer a combination of low maintenance, minimal downtime, and long service life. Their proprietary 2000 Series gear-type universal-joint design minimizes wear and accommodates both radial and thrust loads with ease. This allows the pumps to handle abrasive materials with more than 80% solids, while still maintaining a steady and consistent flow. The 2000 Series also offers performance capabilities to 4,500 gal/min, with pressure to 1,500 psi. Both cast-iron and stainless-steel models are available, with a choice of materials and coatings for rotors and stators to suit individual applications. The 2000 Series pumps also have a low-running-speed capability that extends both the maintenance intervals and the overall working life. This pays particular dividends for ­abrasive-pumped-media applications. The pumps will transfer mud at volumes up to 1,000 gal/min, handling pressures of 200 psi. Other pumps in the Moyno range offer proven solutions for many other oil and gas applications, such as multi­phase-fluid transfer, lease ­automatic custody transfer, crude-oil transfer, and produced-water-handling duties.]

Infrared Sensor

LumaSense Technologies introduced its petrochemical infrared sensor, the Pulsar 4. Oil and gas operations are heavily dependent on combustion-based processes in supplying the world’s growing energy needs. The Pulsar 4 is intended for monitoring the refractory and gas temperatures inside sulfur-recovery units, sulfur burners, and the thermal oxidizer furnaces frequently found at these facilities. The Pulsar 4 is an explosion-proof infrared thermometer (pyrometer) with the ability to see through flames and simultaneously deliver refractory and gas temperature with precision to 0.3°C and a range of 350 to 2000°C (Fig. 5). The Pulsar 4 Advanced features LumaSense’s proprietary Smart Flame Measurement Algorithm, which accounts for flame transparency that can affect the temperature readings for a more-precise view of activity inside these vessels. LumaSense’s updated InfraWin software interprets the data from the Pulsar 4 for analysis inside the control room. Customers with Pulsar II and III can leverage their existing infrastructure to upgrade these units to the new ­Pulsar 4 and its advanced capabilities.

Unconventional-Well Rejuvenation System

Baker Hughes introduced its NextWave production-rejuvenation solution, which helps operators boost production, improve sustainable cash flow, and increase booked reserves in existing unconventional wells. When unconventional wells are not performing to expectations, operators often try to meet production targets by continuing to produce at low rates, drilling more wells, or refracturing the existing wells. Operators need a more-economic and -consistent method of improving recovery. The NextWave solution is based on a four-step stage-gate process that comprises ­candidate-well screening and selection, well diagnostics, program design, and wellsite execution. First, the Baker Hughes team analyzes field production data, well histories, and decline curves, and ranks wells according to rejuvenation risks and economic potential. Second, the team performs comprehensive well diagnostics, including review of original completions and stimulation design, assessment of the wellbore’s structural condition and mechanical integrity, and evaluation of reservoir quality and producing intervals. The third step is designing the appropriate rejuvenation program, which can include wellbore cleanout, installation of artificial lift, and recompletion or stimulation through a targeted refracturing program. During the fourth step, the Baker Hughes team designs a detailed operational plan, manages the wellsite activities, and monitors the treatment and collects data on its effectiveness.

Differential-Pressure Transmitter

The SOR Controls Group 815DT, a loop-powered, microprocessor-based differential-pressure transmitter, offers a configurable single-pole, single-throw, normally open, solid-state relay (Fig. 6). The configurable solid-state relay provides a discrete output signal that can be used for signaling, control, and emergency-shutdown functions. The 815DT includes powerful communications capabilities with HART7 communication protocol and Modbus remote-terminal-unit serial communications protocol. The 815DT is compact, lightweight, rugged, and explosion-proof-rated and thus is suitable for hazardous locations and hostile environments. With the 815DT, operators can improve asset management and increase process uptime because of its low cost. Ranges available include the following: 0–138 in. H2O, 0–415 in. H2O, 0–50 psid, 0–100 psid, 0–300 psid, and 0–500 psid. All products in the 800 series are configured, built, calibrated, and tested per customer specifications.