Project management is one way to keep an eye on the big picture. Focusing on the little things too can increase your bottom line. The complexity of modern facilities construction projects necessitates a cradle-to-grave approach to managing projects over long periods of time. Carrying out the work safely, under budget, and on schedule are just part of the mission.
Physical properties of crude oil, such as API gravity, oil viscosity, and water density, drive the selection of technologies to be used for effective dehydration. To dehydrate heavy crude oils with higher viscosities, the process temperature is often increased to lower viscosity. When the upper limits of temperature are reached, other options must be considered, such as electrostatic field treatments. A recently developed electrostatic technology enhances the direct current field with bimodal frequency modulation.
Peer Review Editor
D. Shen, D. Shcolnik, R. Perkins, G. Taylor, and M. Brown
This paper deals with some key issues concerning production from the Marcellus shale. One aspect of these produced waters that is different from other highly scaling waters is the high level of dissolved iron. Dissolved iron adversely affects the ability of scale inhibitors to reduce the formation of calcium carbonate scale. The paper describes the problem and identifies new chemicals that are more effective in this environment.
W. Yan, J. Deng, X. Dong, C. Zhang, and W. Li
Describes how corrosion of specific steels can change with changes in the composition of the gas. Corrosion rates are typically correlated to the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2), but, in this paper, the author identifies the ability of small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to form a protective film and reduce ongoing corrosion. Microscopic evidence is shown in the paper with a proposal for a better correlation of this effect.
Hydrate Risk Assessment and Restart-Procedure Optimization of an Offshore Well Using a Transient Hydrate Prediction Model
L.E. Zerpa, E.D. Sloan, C.A. Koh, and A.K. Sum
Discusses the modeling of hydrate formation and transportability in the offshore environment. A case is presented for using this modeling in the design and optimization of subsea transport facilities and to aid in the development of safe operational procedures and prevention, management, and remediation of hydrates. The novel component in this work is prediction of hydrates in an oil-dominated system.