When an aging very large crude carrier tanker is converted into a floating production facility, the design, installation, and maintenance of topside process facilities require unique considerations.
The characteristics of crude oil must be considered in facilities design to avoid increased operating expenses related to flow assurance and demulsification.
Case studies describe the application of a wellhead desander for protection of existing surface facilities located onshore, in shallow water, and in deep water.
Methods for improved quantification of operating performances of the gas gravity, mist extraction, and liquid gravity separation sections can be used for the design of new separators and the rating of existing separators.
Peer Review Editor
Describes the options and effects that occur very early in the selection of a development concept for an offshore field. For some discoveries, a choice between platform-based or subsea development exists. The paper describes the large number of complex and mutually dependent options available for offshore developments and encourages the engineer to look beyond the initial solution to include workover, recompletions, and enhanced-oil-recovery technologies.
Z. Rui, P. Metz, X. Wang, G. Chen, X. Zhou, and D. Reynolds
Identifies the cost-estimating errors that cause actual costs for compressor stations to deviate from estimated costs. The statistical analysis includes a review of the cost overruns in several different aspects, such as major components, project size, capacity, and location. In general, the larger cost overruns were in the labor-cost categories. The conclusions include recommendations to help focus the efforts.
M. Hafez, S. Jakeman, B. Al Azawi, I. Ur Rahim, and M. Khaled
Discusses the engineering aspects of smart fields. The main functionalities of onshore smart fields are remote operation, real-time information, and collaboration. The author addresses how implementation depends on whether the current operation is a brownfield or greenfield. However, because primary production is becoming scarce and oil operating companies are struggling to increase recovery from mature reservoirs and develop marginal uncertain reservoirs, the business case for smart fields becomes more appealing.