Formation Damage in Waterflooding and Produced Water Re-Injection

Production and Operations Reservoir Descriptions and Dynamics


Over the last decade, the scale of produced water re-injection (PWRI) in industry has increased tremendously.  PWRI is not only used for disposal purpose but also for voidage replacement and sweep in waterfloods. It is widely acknowledged that if injection under fracturing conditions is allowed, injection water quality specifications can be relieved significantly. On the other hand, induced fracturing creates its own challenges with regard to areal and vertical sweep, and (potential) loss of containment. Moreover, injection under induced fracturing conditions does not resolve all injectivity issues.
Course materials (handouts, references, etc.) will be made available to the attendees.


1. Introduction: Overview of the Types of Formation Damage, its Prevention and Remediation
2. Causes and Mechanisms of Well Injectivity and Productivity Damage
3. Mathematical Modelling and Laboratory Studies of Formation matrix Damage
4. Injectivity decline for PWRI under matrix (non-fractured) injection conditions
5. Water Injection under Fracturing Conditions: introduction and theoretical concepts
6. Injectivity decline for PWRI under induced fracturing conditions.
7. Vertical / areal sweep issues associated with PWRI under fracturing conditions
8. Monitoring / surveillance for PWRI under fracturing conditions
9. Decision Making in Water Management
10. Taking advantage of formation damage to IOR
11. Case Histories on PWRI

Learning Objectives

The course will provide an overview at awareness level of common issues in PWRI, with a focus on subsurface-related topics such as well injectivity and sweep.

Who Should Attend

The course is aimed at drilling, production, and reservoir engineers, simulation and laboratory specialists involved in water flooding, drilling and well stimulation.


Pavel Photo

Pavel Bedrikovetsky is an author of two books in reservoir engineering and 140 technical papers in international journals and SPE. His research covers formation damage and IOR. He holds MSc in Applied Mathematics, PhD in Fluid Mechanics and DSc in Reservoir Engineering from Moscow Oil-Gas Gubkin University. In 1991-1994 he was a Visiting Professor at Delft University of Technology and at Imperial College of Science and Technology. From 1994 and until now Pavel is a Petrobras Staff Consultant. Currently he holds Chair in Petroleum Engineering at Australian School of Petroleum at the University of Adelaide. He served as Section Chairman, short course instructor, key speaker and Steering Committee member at several SPE Conferences. He was 2008-2009 SPE Distinguished Lecturer. email:

Paul photo

Paul van den Hoek joined Shell in 1989 and has since worked in a variety of geomechanics and production/ reservoir engineering areas, such as fracturing, (produced) water injection, waterflooding, sand management, production operations, artificial lift and business planning. He is one of the “founding fathers” of Shell proprietary software in the areas of sand production prediction and induced fracturing in waterflooding.

His latest work in the sand arena consisted of developing (and deploying to the field) a quantitative sand production prediction module.

His latest work in the waterflood area consisted of leading the development and field deployment of a coupled fracture / reservoir simulator to address risks and opportunities associated with injection under induced fracturing conditions in waterfloods and EOR (e.g. polymer, steam, gas).

Currently he heads an R&D team in the area of data assimilation and assisted history matching. He is (co-)author of 70+ technical papers in international journals and SPE. He holds a PhD degree in physical chemistry from the Free University in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. email:

Pacelli photo

Pacelli L.J. Zitha is Professor of Oil and Gas Production at the Delft University of Technology, Department of Geotechnology. From 2006 to 2010 he has been working as a Senior Research Advisor for Shell International E&P. He holds an MSc degree in Theoretical Fluid Physics (1991) and a PhD degree in Condensed Matter Physics (1994), from the University Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI). He is the author of over 65 scientific and technical articles and editor of 2 books. For many years, he worked in water control and foam diversion. His current research interests include well inflow performance, Enhanced Oil Recovery, heavy oil and gas hydrates. He has served in various SPE committees, including as a Chairman of the European Formation Damage Conference and member the SPE R&D Advisory Committee.