Carbon dioxide (CO2) continues to garner a lot of media and technical attention—both good and bad. I want to look at the global big picture of CO2, more specifically its uses and applications.
Global emissions of CO2 resulting from the use of fossil fuels amount to approximately 35 billion tons per year. How much of this can we capture? How much can we store or sequester? And, perhaps the most important question: How much will it cost and who will pay?
It is the last question that needs some attention and discussion. Anyone conversant with CO2 will quickly tell you that pure sequestration will be difficult and challenging because there are no revenues. It is an area that all mankind should work on. In the short term, carbon capture and storage (CCS) has to be CCUS where the “U” stands for “usage.”
So what are some of the current uses of CO2? They include
- CO2 for enhanced oil and gas recovery
- Commercial use in the fertilizer, polymer, beverage, and liquid-fuel industries
- Biological-activity enhancement
- Mineralization or permanent sequestration in cements
How much of the emitted man-made CO2 can be used with these applications? It is only a very small fraction—by some estimates less than 1%.
Another point to note is that, among these highlighted uses, CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is by far the most dominant application. We should all play our part in addressing and reducing the challenges associated with the current applications and, most importantly, in developing cost-effective new CO2 use and sequestration technologies. Sequestration of CO2 poses significant challenges. Each and every one of us is obligated to do our small part in ensuring that we address these challenges to the benefit of mankind. Some of the papers that follow address these challenges through demonstration projects. SPE is perfectly placed in terms of providing best practices and a platform for sharing the development and deployment of these innovative technologies.
This Month's Technical Papers
Recommended Additional Reading
IPTC 18843 Galvanizing Stakeholder Support for CSS by W. Maas, Shell, et al.
SPE 185033 Permanently Sequester Anthropogenic CO2—Through Hydraulic Fracturing by M.M. Reynolds, Ferus, et al.
SPE/AFRC 2572863 Innovations in Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration for Operations, Engineering, and Technology by Simiyu E. Lilian, Kenyatta University, et al.
Sunil Kokal, SPE, Principal Professional, Saudi Aramco
01 July 2017
Phased Pilot Approach Reduces Uncertainty in Carbonate Steamflood Development
The First Eocene is a multibillion-barrel heavy-oil carbonate reservoir in the Wafra field, located in the Partitioned Zone between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. After more than 60 years of primary production, expected recovery is low and provides a good target for enhanced-oil-recovery processes.
Viability of Gas-Injection EOR in Eagle Ford Shale Reservoirs
This paper studies the technical and economic viability of this EOR technique in Eagle Ford shale reservoirs using natural gas injection, generally after some period of primary depletion, typically through long, hydraulically fractured horizontal-reach wells.
Experimental Program Investigates Miscible CO2 WAG Injection in Carbonate Reservoirs
This paper provides a robust methodology for miscible CO2 WAG experimental-data acquisition and history matching.
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