Carbon dioxide (CO2) continues to garner a lot of media and technical attention—both good and bad. I want to look at the global big picture of CO2, more specifically its uses and applications.
Global emissions of CO2 resulting from the use of fossil fuels amount to approximately 35 billion tons per year. How much of this can we capture? How much can we store or sequester? And, perhaps the most important question: How much will it cost and who will pay?
It is the last question that needs some attention and discussion. Anyone conversant with CO2 will quickly tell you that pure sequestration will be difficult and challenging because there are no revenues. It is an area that all mankind should work on. In the short term, carbon capture and storage (CCS) has to be CCUS where the “U” stands for “usage.”
So what are some of the current uses of CO2? They include
- CO2 for enhanced oil and gas recovery
- Commercial use in the fertilizer, polymer, beverage, and liquid-fuel industries
- Biological-activity enhancement
- Mineralization or permanent sequestration in cements
How much of the emitted man-made CO2 can be used with these applications? It is only a very small fraction—by some estimates less than 1%.
Another point to note is that, among these highlighted uses, CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is by far the most dominant application. We should all play our part in addressing and reducing the challenges associated with the current applications and, most importantly, in developing cost-effective new CO2 use and sequestration technologies. Sequestration of CO2 poses significant challenges. Each and every one of us is obligated to do our small part in ensuring that we address these challenges to the benefit of mankind. Some of the papers that follow address these challenges through demonstration projects. SPE is perfectly placed in terms of providing best practices and a platform for sharing the development and deployment of these innovative technologies.
This Month's Technical Papers
Recommended Additional Reading
IPTC 18843 Galvanizing Stakeholder Support for CSS by W. Maas, Shell, et al.
SPE 185033 Permanently Sequester Anthropogenic CO2—Through Hydraulic Fracturing by M.M. Reynolds, Ferus, et al.
SPE/AFRC 2572863 Innovations in Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration for Operations, Engineering, and Technology by Simiyu E. Lilian, Kenyatta University, et al.
Sunil Kokal, SPE, Principal Professional, Saudi Aramco
01 July 2017
Approaches for CO2 Capture and Sequestration Inspired by Biological Systems
In this study, several process alternatives for the permanent sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) as solid carbonates are evaluated.
First CO2-Enhanced-Oil-Recovery Demonstration Project in Saudi Arabia
An operator has designed a demonstration project for carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and has implemented it in one of its fields.
Integrating Enhanced Oil Recovery and Carbon Capture and Storage: Farnsworth Field
The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) is one of seven large-scale demonstration projects sponsored by the US Department of Energy.
06 September 2017
18 September 2017
19 September 2017