Tight formations are candidates for hydraulic fracturing as the default. However, the solubility of carbonate by various chemicals provides opportunities to extend the well drainage radius effectively without the intensive equipment, material, and infrastructure demand of hydraulic fracturing.
Custom-Designed Coiled Tubing Leads to Success in Extended-Reach Operations
Advanced horizontal drilling, multistage hydraulic fracturing, and other technologies have helped make the Vaca Muerta shale oil and gas resource economically viable.
Systematic Coiled-Tubing-Efficiency Improvement Reduces Operational Time
Deepwater coiled-tubing (CT) well interventions can benefit from significant rig-time reduction and cost savings associated with improved efficiencies of surface processes.
Coiled Tubing With Real-Time-Measurement Tools Helps Overcome Stimulation Problems
The treatment in a deepwater, frac-packed well with fiber-optic-equipped coiled tubing (CT) and a rotating, hydraulic high-pressure jetting tool achieved successful stimulation of a 500-ft-long frac-packed zone after several previous failures using different techniques.
We have seen in recent years many technological advancements in tubular-manufacturing technology. Tubulars also have become part of the data-transmission network and slowly will converge with the data-handling and data-transmission systems.
Monitoring of Matrix Acidizing by Use of Resistivity Measurements
This paper describes the testing of a novel concept based on resistivity measurements to monitor acid-stimulation operations.
Significant progress in cost reduction has been made in the industry following the price downturn, not only in the direct cost of construction and operations but also through a determined drive to simplify and streamline new projects in concepts selected for facilities and wells.
Novel Coiled-Tubing Perforation Technique and Stimulation in Carbonate Gas Well
This paper discusses a novel approach to abrasive perforating, including the first-ever use of an acid-soluble abrasive material and ending with CT-jetting-assisted nitrified stimulation.
Cryogenic-Fracturing Treatment of Synthetic Rock With Liquid Nitrogen
This study aims to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of cryogenic-fracturing technology in enhancing the permeability of unconventional-reservoir-rock analogs.
What Vacuum-Insulated Tubings and Casings Bring to Thermal Wells
This paper describes both design and economic considerations that lead to the selection of vacuum-insulated tubing (VIT) or vacuum-insulated casing (VIC) for the completion of thermal wells.
Improving Casing Integrity by Induction Brazing of Casing Connections
Brazing technology allows metallurgical joining of dissimilar materials by use of a filler material.
Collapse Analysis of Perforated Pipes Under External Pressure
This work is a study of collapse pressure of perforated pipes to evaluate the effect of lateral perforations on the radial resistance of pipes under external pressure.
Challenges During Surface-Facility-Project Implementation for a Full-Field Polymer Flood
This paper presents key challenges in surface-facilities-project implementation during the construction and operational-readiness phase of a project and presents results from full-field implementation.
Optimizing the Use of Miscible Injectant at the Greater Prudhoe Bay Fields
This paper provides an overview of all enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) projects in the Greater Prudhoe Bay (GPB) region and presents the process and methodology for MI allocation to these projects and to individual injection patterns.
Overview of Carbon Dioxide Injection and Water-Alternating-Gas Sensitivity
This paper presents an overview of the SACROC Unit’s activity focusing on different carbon dioxide (CO2) injection and water-alternating-gas (WAG) projects that have made the SACROC unit one of the most successful CO2 injection projects in the world.
Pseudodensity Log Generation by Use of Artificial Neural Networks
This paper will describe how one integrates a comprehensive methodology of data-mining techniques and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in reservoir-petrophysical-properties prediction and regeneration.
Cointerpretation of Distributed Acoustic and Temperature Sensing for Inflow Profiling
With the availability of more-complex smart-well instrumentation, immediate evaluation of the well response is possible as changes in the reservoir or well occur.
The need to offset declining production from mature basins, as well as the ability of international oil companies to access larger reserves with the use of new exploration-and-production technology, will continue to drive deepwater expenditure.
Deepwater-Structure-Installation Challenges Offshore Australia
This paper provides an insight into the challenges encountered and overcome during installation of 20 subsea structures, some close to 1000 t in weight and in water depths of up to 1350 m, for the Gorgon project offshore Western Australia.
Intelligent Fields Technology
The most-competitive emerging systems blend artificial intelligence to bring better efficiency to the human work that results in good business decisions. As a result, we waste less time and fewer resources finding and manipulating data and focus more on complex engineering judgment.
Efficient Optimization Strategies for Developing Intelligent-Well Business Cases
The complete paper evaluates optimization techniques to develop, or support, business cases for intelligent or smart wells.
A Methodology for Multilateral-Well Optimization
Multilateral wells with smart completions controlled by different flow-control technologies offer great operational flexibility, with each lateral able to be operated and optimized independently.
The featured papers all show improved solutions for constructing multilateral and long-reach wells. They show the dynamics of a continuous striving for improvements. These well types are very important tools in the search to maximize recovery from petroleum fields.
Deepwater Hydraulic Well Intervention: A Creative Hybrid Solution
This technical paper describes the planning and execution of a multiservice-vessel (MSV) -based hydraulic-intervention campaign in Chevron’s Tahiti field in the US Gulf of Mexico.
Despite cement’s remarkable properties, the search continues for enhancements in the areas of cost and isolation performance. Efficiencies and enhancements have been explored even to the point of replacing cement with other materials.
Sustainable Building Blocks for Cost-Effective Deepwater-Field Development
This paper reviews clusters of information that will be termed “building blocks” for deepwater-field-development planning, discussing how they are currently used and exploring more-affordable, but technically robust, alternatives.
Overcoming Challenges and Optimizing Liner Deployment in Long Laterals
A North Sea field development included installation of long 4½-in. completion liners in the horizontal reservoir sections of each well. To minimize overall risk, the operator planned to use managed-pressure drilling (MPD).
Next-Generation High-Torque Connection for Extended-Reach Wells
This paper demonstrates how the latest generation of connections has been tested and validated to extreme loads before being installed in the wellbore.
Real-Time Monitoring of Piezoresistive Smart Cement To Verify Operations
A field well was designed, built, and used to demonstrate the concept of real-time monitoring of the flow of drilling mud and smart cement and the hardening of the cement in place.
Cement Placement With Tubing Left in Hole During Plug-and-Abandonment Operations
This paper presents full-scale tests that show it is possible to obtain good cement placement when the tubing is left in the hole.
Investigating the Benefits of Rotating-Liner Cementing and Impact Factors
This paper discusses an expandable-liner-hanger (ELH) system that provides liner rotation during the liner deployment and the cementing operation while providing a hydraulically energized liner-top seal upon setting.
RFID Technology for Deepwater Drilling and Completions Challenges
Deepwater operators continually face technical and environmental challenges to drilling and completing wells safely and efficiently.
Systems Approach to Product Design for Ultradeepwater Completion Systems
This paper describes how a systems-engineering approach was used to develop completion technology targeted for the ultradeepwater Lower Tertiary Trend.
Interventionless Reservoir-Isolation Valve Removes Need for Intermediate Completion
This paper focuses on the application of radio-frequency-identification technology to enable an operator to eliminate an intervention run (or intermediate liner) for a 10,000-ft reservoir section.
Fiber-Optic Leak-Detection Project
This paper discusses the objectives of the Fiber-Optic Leak-Detection (FOLD) project, carried out in Verneuil-en-Halatte, France.
A New Distillation Process for the Upgrading of Acid Gas
In this work, the potential of a new low-temperature distillation process for natural-gas sweetening has been investigated.
Offshore Drilling and Completion
The industry has developed a deep and healthy respect for systems-engineering processes and the associated full considerations during the deployment of new technologies. The result has been a significant improvement in the successful use and broader deployment of these attractive technologies.
Integrated Approach for Overpressure Prediction in an HP/HT Well Offshore Malaysia
Pore-pressure prediction plays an important role in well planning as exploration targets shift to deeper, overpressured reservoirs.
Application of MPD Technology for HP/HT Wells in Vietnam
One common issue among operators in determining whether to install a managed-pressure-drilling (MPD) system for a campaign is the significant upfront cost.
First Expandable Liner-Hanger Installation in UAE in an HP/HT Well
This paper discusses the planning and deployment of an expandable-liner-hanger (ELH) system in an offshore high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) well for the first time in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Uncertainty Quantification for History-Matching Problems
This paper presents a novel approach to generate approximate conditional realizations using the distributed Gauss-Newton (DGN) method together with a multiple local Gaussian approximation technique.
Field-Scale Assisted History Matching Using a Systematic Ensemble Kalman Smoother
This work presents a systematic and rigorous approach of reservoir decomposition combined with the ensemble Kalman smoother to overcome the complexity and computational burden associated with history matching field-scale reservoirs in the Middle East.
Drill and Learn: A Decision-Making Work Flow To Quantify Value of Learning
This paper presents a comparison of existing work flows and introduces a practically driven approach, referred to as “drill and learn,” using elements and concepts from existing work flows to quantify the value of learning (VOL).
Natural Gas Processing and Handling
Natural gas had a bullish year in 2016 as the average Henry Hub spot price jumped from USD 2.28/million Btu in January to USD 3.59/million Btu in December, according to the Energy Information Administration. It also positively forecast that the gas price will rise to USD 3.67/million Btu in 2017.
Instead of selecting papers that were dedicated to material selection, I considered works that concentrated upon best practices and recently developed technologies that make operations in these difficult environments more efficient and far safer for crews and for the environment itself.
History Matching and Forecasting
I believe the main development in history matching is the recognition that it can be formulated as a Bayesian inference problem. History matching is no longer a searching process to find the best model. Instead, history matching is a process of mitigating uncertainty in light of new information.
New Steel Plate for Liquefied-Natural-Gas Storage Tank
A new steel plate for LNG storage tanks has been developed by optimizing chemical composition and applying recent thermomechanical-control-process (TMCP) technology.
With newly discovered fields and the extension of existing areas, the challenges related to reservoir heterogeneity, tight rock, layered systems, and field maturity have led to innovative ideas and to testing and application of technologies.
A Comparison Between Seawater-Based and Freshwater-Based Fracturing Fluids
This paper examines the chemistry of developing seawater-based fracturing fluids using two types of polymers as gelling agents and compares results to existing fresh-water-based-fracturing-fluid data under different conditions.
Industry trends in production monitoring and surveillance continue to demonstrate significant input from the academic and research fields, practical applications, and new-technology introduction. Market conditions similar to those of the previous year are driving some of the same discussions.
Radio-Frequency Heating Combined With Solvent Injection for Heavy-Oil Recovery
The most popular technology for producing heavy oil (HO) and bitumen is reservoir heating, mainly by steam injection.
3D Close-the-Loop Method Based on Probabilistic Seismic Inversion
The paper discusses an approach for predicting the lateral variation of net to gross (NTG) by use of 3D probabilistic seismic inversion.
Cost optimization in heavy-oil production can be achieved through numerical modeling to suggest general optimal strategies and development plans or by using proper real-time data acquisition … for prompt decisions while operations are ongoing.
An Innovative Approach to Gel Breakers for Hydraulic Fracturing
Recent studies have found that the viscosities of borate gels at actual downhole pressure conditions may be 80% less than those from standard high-pressure/high-temperature rheometer measurement (which uses 400-psi top pressure).
Advancement of the integration of seismic with other oilfield disciplines has been fueled by two factors. First, advances in seismic technologies naturally led to more-powerful integration. Second, developments in seismic were motivated in direct response to the needs of interpreters and engineers.
Comparison of Multiphase-Flow Results in Transverse vs. Longitudinal Fracturing
This paper presents the results of a comprehensive multiphase-flow study that investigated the relationship between the principal stresses and lateral direction in hydraulically fractured horizontal wells.
Real-Time Production Surveillance and Optimization in a Mature Subsea Asset
A real-time production-surveillance and -optimization system has been developed to integrate available surveillance data with the objective of driving routine production optimization.
Production Response in the Denver-Julesburg Basin
The authors used a high-quality digital-log data set to characterize reservoir quality accurately in the Niobrara and Codell Formations in the Denver-Julesberg (DJ) Basin.
Cost-Effective Production Metering and Allocation in a Mature Offshore Oil Field
This paper describes how the use of production-modeling tools, coupled with field pressure/temperature-data-acquisition systems and programming software, served as a means to improve production allocation and surveillance on a real-time basis in the Greater Angostura Field.
Key Learnings From First 2 Years of a Full-Field CSS Development in Oman
The A East Haradh formation contains a 200-m-thick oil column of highly viscous oil, with viscosity ranging from 200 to 400,000 cp.
Nanoparticle Catalysts Upgrade Heavy Oil for Continuous-Steam-Injection Recovery
This paper presents an investigation into the effect of catalytic nanoparticles on the efficiency of recovery from continuous steam injection.
High-Resolution Seismic Stochastic Inversion as a Direct Input for Reservoir Modeling
Three-dimensional reservoir models are best created with a combination of well logs and 3D-seismic data. However, the effective integration of these results is not easy because of limited seismic resolution.
Fracture Modeling Using a Constructed Discrete Fracture Network From Seismic Data
The objective of this study is to validate the concept of using a seismically derived discrete fracture network (DFN) calibrated with borehole measurements, for complex-hydraulic-fracture modeling.
Deepwater Tieback-Cementing-Design Challenges and Engineering Approach
This paper focuses on cementing-design challenges and discusses the engineering techniques used to approach them.
Remote Directional Drilling and Logging in the Arctic
Few locations present as many challenges for drilling as the Arctic. It is one of the most hostile environments in the world, with some of the most remote locations, the toughest logistics challenges, and the largest gaps in infrastructure on the planet.
How To Develop a Well-Specific Capping-Stack Blowout Contingency Plan
Developing a well-specific subsea-capping contingency plan involves assessing the feasibility of deploying a capping stack from a floating vessel, determining the weight and stability, and performing dynamic-flow simulations of closing the capping stack outlets.
Drilling Technology and Rigs
Sustaining innovation and well performance during economic downcycles is a hot topic right now. However, the severity of this downturn has resulted in an unprecedented purging of existing paradigms. In this context, it is important to reveal and highlight new initiatives and success stories.
Passive-Fire-Protection Optimization in Offshore Topside Structures
Applying sufficient passive fire protection (PFP) on topside structural-steel members is critical. Simplified and conservative approaches are available to estimate the extent and amount of PFP necessary.
This month's feature on Offshore Facilities is drawn from more than 200 papers presented at SPE events over the past year.
In-Service Hull Inspections for Avoiding Dry Docking Safely
Current methods for external inspection of floating assets on station use divers or remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), but these methods incur high safety, people-on-board (POB), and cost penalties. New methods to eliminate diving are being developed.
Design of a Floating-Liquefied-Natural-Gas System for Severe Metocean Conditions
This paper describes a split-process FLNG design where primary production and gas-treatment functions are provided on a host platform while liquefaction occurs on a separate vessel.
Fieldwide Determination of Directional Permeabilities Through Transient Well Testing
Knowledge of the maximum- and minimum-permeability directions in anisotropic reservoirs helps to optimize injector and producer locations and is important for reservoir management, especially under secondary or enhanced recovery of hydrocarbons.
Continued enthusiasm in the well-testing segment of the oil industry is apparent. Even though there was a smaller number of presentations among various conferences related to well testing in 2016, there are articles that contribute significantly for the experts and the upcoming generation.
Novel Solutions for Transient Sandface Temperature in Dry-Gas-Producing Wells
The application of high-precision downhole temperature sensors has resulted in pressure-transient analysis (PTA) being complemented or replaced by temperature-transient analysis (TTA).
Case History: High-Pressure/High-Temperature Underbalanced Drillstem Testing
This paper describes the method developed to achieve underbalanced drillstem testing (DST) in a deepwater field offshore India.
One of the challenges for those involved with understanding an unexpected decline in well performance is identifying the exact causes for the reduced productivity. Consideration of all data available can eventually point toward one factor that could explain productivity decline.
Integrated Approach To Managing Formation Damage in Waterflooding
Understanding of formation damage is a key theme in a waterflood project. An integrated multidisciplinary approach is required to determine an optimal design and strategy.
Formation Damage: A Novel Approach in Evaluating Zonal-Productivity Loss
The paper describes a novel methodology to construct distributed formation damage across openhole wells in carbonate reservoirs and to evaluate the effects of damage on zonal productivity.
Removing Fines-Migration Formation Damage in the Putumayo Basin in Colombia
This paper summarizes a wide variety of sandstone-acid-stimulation case histories, highlighting aspects such as mechanical conditions and operational practices.
EOR Performance and Modeling
Current conditions have made most companies decide to optimize performance of their existing assets, and EOR is a key part of that.
Proper Simulation of Chemical-EOR Pilots—A Real Case Study
A critical step in proper design and optimization of any chemical-enhanced-oil-recovery (CEOR) process is appropriate and precise numerical simulations.
Experimental and Numerical Studies of CO2 EOR in Unconventional Reservoirs
This study explores the mechanisms contributing to oil recovery with numerical modeling of experimental work and investigates the effects of various parameters on oil recovery.
A Field Trial in a Carbonate Reservoir Using a Solvent-Based Waterflood Process
Dimethyl-ether (DME) -enhanced waterflood (DEW) is a process in which DME is added to injection water and, upon injection, preferentially partitions into the remaining oil.
Mature Wells and Field Revitalization
I would like to steer readers’ attention to new technology, advanced modeling, and the interesting topic of fracture hits.
Tapping Difficult Oil in a Giant Carbonate Field in Qatar
After 70 years of production, more than 30% of the Arab C reservoir stock-tank original oil in place has been recovered through various mechanisms including natural depletion, waterflooding, gas lift implementation, and horizontal-well development.
New Technology in a Mature East Malaysian Field
This paper describes the first job in southeast Asia in developing horizontal-well placement in a turbidite environment.
Use of Modern Reservoir Characterization in Mature Fields To Unravel Hidden Reserves
This paper discusses the successful, fully integrated, 3D Earth modeling (EM) and dynamic reservoir simulation of the Hollin Formation in the Lago Agrio Field within an operator’s first producer field in Ecuador.
Well Integrity and Well Control
One of the more important aspects of well integrity during drilling operations is early kick detection. Recently, new technologies and re-search have been applied or developed to improve the kick-detection systems and to overcome some of the difficulties.
Mitigating Gas in Riser Rapid Unloading for Deepwater Dual-Gradient Well Control
A study using a dynamic multiphase-flow software simulated a rapid-unloading event and determined the gas fraction in the riser annulus and the effect on riser fluid levels.
Next-Generation Kick Detection During Connections
An influx-detection-at-pumps-stop (IDAPS) software was developed to provide early warning of abnormal flowback conditions during connections.
Methodology and Array Technology for Finding and Describing Leaks in a Well
This paper presents a new technology and methods that can detect leak locations in a well and illustrate the flow profile of the leak.
Decommissioning and Abandonment
Our industry is governed by rules that require cleanup and closure of oil and gas facilities after they cease to produce. Unlike a capital project, decommissioning is not something that you can choose to do or not to do.
Risk-Based Abandonment-Prioritization Strategy for Inactive Subsea Wells
This paper describes how an exploration-and-production company successfully developed and applied a qualitative risk-based abandonment-prioritization strategy for an inventory of inactive subsea wells.
A New Recommended Practice for Fit-for-Purpose Well Abandonment
DNV GL is introducing a new, risk-based recommended practice for performing and qualifying well abandonments titled DNVGL-RP-E103, Risk-Based Abandonment of Offshore Wells.
Concurrent Decommissioning Method Enables Safer, Lower-Cost Process
With regulatory pressure and the cost of decommissioning increasing, many operators are seeking new and better decommissioning methods that could get more work done safely and at a lower cost.
Governments, companies, service providers, and many other stakeholders in the industry have realized the oil-price outlook may remain low for longer than expected and the need to plan accordingly.
Integrated Asset Modeling: An Approach to Long-Term Production Planning
With declining trends in production and dwindling reserves for a 35-year-old offshore field, the Samarang Redevelopment Project was initiated with a vision toward implementing integrated operations as an asset-management decision-support tool.
How Visualization Technology Is Maximizing Uptime
Visualization technology has played a key role in reducing operational expenditure (OPEX) and improving collaboration, thus maximizing uptime across the industry throughout the asset life cycle.
Overcoming Technical-Assurance Challenges in Executing Parallel Megaprojects
In order to meet short- and medium-term expansion goals as well as ensure a sustainable long-term future, an operator has recently embarked on several greenfield and brownfield developments. These involve several megaprojects running in parallel with different teams.
Unconventional Risk and Uncertainty: What Does Success Look Like?
This paper presents approaches for proper risking of uncertain recoverable volumes for an unconventional resource, taking into account the chance of false positives from appraisal-well information.
Production and Facilities
Significant advances were reported in materials, field optimization, safe operations, corrosion, and wellbore-related technologies related to production and facilities
Determination of H2S Partial Pressures and Fugacities in Flowing Streams
An Excel-based tool was developed that uses cubic-equation-of-state (EOS) and thermodynamic electrolyte-chemistry modeling to assess sour-production streams.
Production-Optimization Strategy Using a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
The optimization algorithm used in this work is a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA), which is the combination of GAs with artificial neural networks (ANNs) and evolution strategies (ESs).
Qualification of Composite Pipe
This paper describes the qualification process for a thermoplastic composite pipe manufactured for use in high-performance riser, jumper-spool, and intervention-line applications.
Bit Technology and Bottomhole Assemblies
Rotary-steerable tools (RSTs) are now deemed mainstays in the drilling community.
New Rotary-Steerable System Delivers High Dogleg Severity, Improves Penetration Rate
A new rotary-steerable system (RSS) was designed to give geometrically greater dogleg-severity (DLS) capability while still being able to withstand the increased bending stresses.
Bending Rules With High-Build-Rate Rotary-Steerable Systems
This paper explores the applications, benefits, and value of a high-build-rate rotary-steerable system (HRSS) capable of delivering dogleg severity (DLS) greater than 18°/100 ft.
Improvements in Root-Cause Analysis of Drillstring Vibration
Drillstring vibration is a leading cause of downhole-tool failure and premature wear of downhole equipment.
Considering the current downturn in crude prices, there is a renewed interest in recycling produced water for reuse in hydraulic fracturing in the development of unconventional resource plays.
Fit-for-Purpose Treatment of Produced Water for Hydraulic Fracturing in the Permian Basin
Sourcing water for large multifracture stimulations in west Texas is a well-known constraint on oil and gas activities in the area. A 6-month pilot operation demonstrated that produced-water reuse is technically feasible and can be a cost-effective solution.
Solving Produced-Water Challenges With a Novel Guar-Based System
This paper summarizes the benefits of using a bipolymer crosslinking system in environments where water quality cannot be guaranteed. It also demonstrates the yielded cost savings per well that are achievable when reusing 100% produced or flowback water for hydraulic fracturing.
Produced-Water Reinjection—Case Study From Onshore Abu Dhabi
Water production normally increases as fields mature, and two main ways exist to deal with the produced water. One is to dispose of the produced water into dedicated disposal wells. The other is to reinject the produced water for pressure maintenance or sweep efficiency.
Drilling and Completion Fluids
With shrinking budgets and limited resources, partnerships and collaboration are considered the best options. It is no secret that universities and industry have a special platform to work hand-in-hand.
Method for Monitoring Mud Contamination in Wireline-Formation-Tester Sampling
The wireline formation tester (WFT) is a well-developed technology used to collect representative downhole fluid samples. The authors introduce a simple but effective method for monitoring WFT sampling when targeting the low levels of contamination needed for asphaltene-onset-pressure analysis.
Development of Novel Drilling-Fluid Nanoparticles for Enhanced Drilling Operations
This work focuses on the laboratory techniques for developing, assessing, and analyzing innovative water-based drilling fluids containing iron oxide (Fe2O3) and silica (SiO2) nanoparticles.
Optimal Nanosilica Concentration in Synthetic-Based Mud for HP/HT Wells
At certain conditions, the good performance of synthetic-based mud (SBM) will degrade, particularly because of the effect of chemical instability under high temperature. Silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanopowder (nanosilica) holds the potential for performance improvement.
Positron-Emission Tomography Offers New Insight Into Wormhole Formation
Polymer gel is frequently used for conformance control in fractured reservoirs, where it is injected to reside in fractures or high-permeability streaks to reduce conductivity. This paper discusses the behavior and blocking capacity of gel during chase waterflooding.
A New Approach for Optimization of Long-Horizontal-Well Performance
Experience has revealed that frictional pressure loss in the wellbore hinders the full use of the entire length of the horizontal well. This paper presents a new approach to maximize the use of the full length of long horizontal drainholes.
Use of Microseismic Monitoring To Compare Completion Designs
This study compares the performance of openhole-packer completion systems with that of cemented-liner completion systems in the northern Montney gas resource play.
Friction-Load Redistribution for Extended-Reach- and Horizontal-Well Completions
In horizontal and extended-reach wells in which long completions are run into highly deviated or lateral zones, large compression loads arise because of running friction.
Horizontal and Complex-Trajectory Wells
Advances made in horizontal and complex-trajectory wells demonstrate that, despite this historic downturn, the industry has kept innovating and optimizing to bring more-efficient solutions to the table.
Plume Modeling Establishes Efficacy, Safety of Gas Extraction From Lake Kivu, Rwanda
A floating gas-extraction facility was constructed to extract gas-laden water, separate the CH4 and some of the CO2, and reinject the degassed water, thus increasing the safety of the lake and simultaneously providing CH4.
A Deepwater Gasfield-Development Strategy for Trinidad and Tobago
Applying an economic analysis for Trinidad and Tobago's deepwater gas fiscal regime, results were calculated for various price scenarios to identify a workable strategy for development of offshore resources.
Gas Production Technology
Increased fossil fuel use correlates strongly with increased standard of living, wealth, life expectancy, and food availability. Why are we so negative about something that has done so much good for so many people?
Blowout Prevention and Relief-Well Planning for the Wheatstone Big-Bore Gas-Well Project
The engineering and operational planning to ensure that no uncontrolled hydrocarbon releases occur during the execution of subsea big-bore gas wells are described.
Offshore Production and Flow Assurance
Subsea tieback of a new field to an existing offshore production facility is one option to minimize development costs.
Direct Electrical Heating of a Flexible Pipe
This paper describes a new direct electrical heating method in flexible-pipe systems. The method effectively expands the operational envelope of flexible unbonded pipes with greater control of hydrate plugs and wax precipitation by distributed heating along the entire pipe length,
Flow-Assurance Methods Enabled by Medium-Voltage Heating Technology
Medium-voltage electric heating systems offer reduced installation cost and increasing efficiency for multimegawatt oil and gas heating applications compared with low-voltage systems. For offshore applications, the systems offer the added benefit of both space and weight reductions.
Thermoplastic-Composite-Pipe Flowline Helps Reduce Project and Life-Cycle Costs
Thermoplastic composite pipe (TCP) is a spoolable, fully bonded pipe with glass or carbon-fiber reinforcements. While most often used in deep water, the combination of a solid wall, spoolability, and corrosion resistance makes TCP attractive for production-flowlines in shallow water also.
Sapinhoá Field, Santos Basin Presalt: From Design to Execution and Results
This paper presents the development of Sapinhoá field, covering the fast-track transition and decision-making process, from appraisal to conceptual and basic engineering of the Sapinhoá pilot project and on to its subsequent execution, highlighting the challenges, lessons learned, and results.
Improving Megaproject Economics Through the Use of Early Production
A key aspect of the project discussed in this paper is the use of minimal initial-production facilities to achieve significant early production from each of four preconstructed artificial islands.
Completion and Well-Spacing Optimization for Horizontal Wells in Pad Development
In organic shales, hydraulic fracturing is important for optimizing the production of horizontal wells. For a standalone lateral, the propped surface should be maximized to increase production. In the case of a pad, well spacing is an additional factor.
Field Development Projects
Field-development projects need to include and consider not only a static or dynamic subsurface characterization but also the production-systems and facilities options, to trigger profitability and establish clear breakeven thresholds.
The Role of Induced Unpropped Fractures in Unconventional Oil and Gas Wells
On the basis of production data, diagnostic methods, and field observations, it is becoming increasingly clear that induced unpropped fractures created during the hydraulic-fracturing operation play a critical role in determining the success of fracture treatments.
Injection in Shale: Experience on the Norwegian Continental Shelf
Waste injection in shale has been performed on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) for more than 15 years. Techniques have been developed that allow wells to dispose of several million barrels into individual shale domains with matrix permeability in the nanodarcy range and no permeable layers.
Model for a Shale-Gas Formation With Salt-Sealed Natural Fractures
This paper offers an alternative explanation for the early boundary-dominated flow related to dissolution of salt-sealed natural fractures in the shale.
New-Frontier Reservoirs II
Under current conditions, onshore focus has shifted from fast-paced growth of tight hydrocarbon reservoirs to production enhancement from existing (but still profitable) wells, as well as to maximizing productivity from the smaller number of new well completions.
Functional Approach to Data Mining, Forecasting, and Uncertainty Quantification
The difficulty in applying traditional reservoir-simulation and -modeling techniques for unconventional-reservoir forecasting is often related to the systematic time variations in production-decline rates. This paper proposes a nonparametric statistical approach to resolve this difficulty.
Petroleum Data Analytics
One of the many challenges we face today in the petroleum industry is the management of data and information. Data analytics supporting appropriate engineering and management judgment and the modeling of actual energy scenarios is key to improved economics and decision-making.
Mitigating Drilling Dysfunction With a Drilling Advisory System
A Drilling Advisory System (DAS) is a rig-based drilling-surveillance and -optimization platform that encourages regular drilloff tests, carefully monitors drilling performance, and provides recommendations for controllable drilling parameters to help improve the overall drilling process.
Big-Data Analytics for Predictive Maintenance Modeling: Challenges and Opportunities
Optimization of maintenance costs is among operators’ main concerns in the search for operational efficiency, safety, and asset availability. The ability to predict critical failures emerges as a key factor, especially when reducing logistics costs is mandatory.
Re-Evaluation of Gravel-Pack-Sizing Criteria
In this paper, gravel-pack pore size is evaluated further by use of the permeability of the gravel pack and other methods. A new sizing method is proposed that is based on the effective formation size and the gravel-pack pore size.
Evaluating Sand-Screen Performance With Sand-Retention Tests and Numerical Modeling
This paper presents a combined experimental and numerical-modeling study on sand-screen performance. The objective is to develop an improved methodology for optimal sand-screen-aperture selection by addressing some of the limitations present in existing sand-retention tests.
Factors Governing the Performance of Multilayered Metal-Mesh Screens
Multilayered metal-mesh screens (MMSs) are widely used as standalone screens for sand control in unconsolidated formations. It is often found that screens with the same filter-layer nominal rating perform differently.
Sand Management and Sand Control
Could the development of consistent practices be a critical first step on our journey toward achieving improvements in completion quality? The list of practices is quite long. For sand-control applications, we could start with those activities that occur early in the design process.
Reservoir Performance and Monitoring
The current reservoir-performance-monitoring technologies are being improved continuously for better reservoir understanding, more-accurate short- and long-term production forecasting, and lower overall operational costs.
Marcellus Wells: Ultimate Production Accurately Predicted From Initial Production
In this work, the authors perform automatic decline analysis on Marcellus Shale gas wells and predict ultimate recovery for each well.
Ultimate Production Accurately Predicted From Initial Production
In this work, the authors perform automatic decline analysis on Marcellus Shale gas wells and predict ultimate recovery for each well.
Use of Partitioning Tracers To Estimate Oil-Saturation Distribution
Partitioning interwell tracer tests (PITTs) have been used to estimate remaining oil saturations (ROSs) during waterflooding.
A Full-Field Interwell Tracer Program on a Giant Carbonate Oil Field
This paper reviews the design and implementation of a full-field interwell tracer program for a giant onshore oil field in Abu Dhabi.
SAGD and Fiber-Optic Distributed Acoustic and Temperature Sensing
Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is the most common fiber-optic measurement used for steam-assisted-gravity-drainage reservoir monitoring.
As activity plummeted to record lows, we witnessed a calibration of completion strategies. Whether it was further optimization of the preferred completion technique, implementation of new technologies, or a complete shift in completion philosophy, no stone was left unturned.
Quadlateral Success Story in a Heavy-Oil Reservoir
This paper documents the success story of the first quadlateral completion for an Alaskan operator by use of stacked, rotatable, Technical Advancement for Multilaterals Level-3 junction systems.
Engineered Shale Completions Based on Common Drilling Data
In this study, the authors demonstrate a reliable, cost-effective methodology that empowers shale operators with reservoir data on every well.
A 5-Year Journey of Advanced Completions
With the objective of increasing its production to 4.0 million BOPD, the Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) is developing its fields with optimum technology solutions.
Understanding Completion Performance: Software-Guided Work Flows and Models
This paper describes a comprehensive field study of eight horizontal wells deployed in the stacked Niobrara and Codell reservoirs in the Wattenberg Field (Denver-Julesburg Basin).
Drilling Systems Automation and Management
As systems automation becomes more widespread in drilling, simulators are required to plan, train rig crews, and monitor real-time operations.
Drilling Automation Saves Rig Time and Safeguards Against Human Error
This paper shows how automation reduces invisible lost time and allows drillers to focus on other activities while repetitive tasks are controlled by software.
Wired Drillpipe, Closed-Loop Automation Technology Drive Performance Improvement
To accelerate learning, an operator deployed a real-time, closed-loop downhole automation system (DHAS) in conjunction with wired drillpipe in the 8¾-in.-hole section.
Use of Life-Cycle Drilling-Simulation System on Challenging HP/HT Drilling Operation
This paper presents the LCDSS and elaborates on the use of it in the preparation and training phase and the operational phase, including forecasting.
Drilling Improvements Work Toward the Perfect Well in the Eagle Ford
In the Eagle Ford, an integrated approach to engineering and operations was key to optimize performance and improve understanding of the area.
In the past decade, analytics in the oil field has grown to be a major discipline, integrally supporting the application of many different types of production chemicals and becoming viewed by some as a technology differentiator.
The Importance of Scale-Inhibitor Analysis—A State-of-the-Art Overview
This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of scale-inhibitor-analysis techniques and describes how these techniques can be used to provide cost-effective scale management.
Time-Resolved Fluorescence for Real-Time Monitoring of Scale and Corrosion Inhibitors
This paper describes a novel method of chemical dosage based on time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) that allows a simple, accurate, and efficient quantification of chemicals below parts-per-million ranges, even for double (scale/scale, scale/corrosion) quantification.
Chemical Analysis of Flowback Water and Downhole Gas-Shale Samples
In this study, samples of flowback water and downhole shales are analyzed to investigate the mechanisms controlling the chemistry of flowback water.
Deep-Sea Laser Raman—Developments for In-Situ Chemical Analysis and Applications
The deep-ocean Raman in-situ-spectrometer (DORISS) instruments were developed for the purposes of identifying compounds and studying in-situ chemical reactions in a nondestructive manner while working with solids, liquids, and gases.
Formation-Evaluation Log-Off Results for Coalbed-Methane-Field Development
Coalbed methane development can require a large volume of wells, but the costs of logging can be prohibitive, so alternate formation-evaluation solutions are being evaluated. This paper compares state-of-the-art mining logging technology with conventional oil-and-gas approaches.
Innovative Concepts in Wireline Continuous Coring
Wireline continuous coring (WCC) has been adapted from the mining industry for unconventional resources. This paper is aimed at identifying and addressing complications experienced in the use of WCC.
New Multilayer Boundary-Detection Service in Bohai Bay, Northern China
A new multilayer boundary‑detection service has been introduced to resolve the geological uncertainty associated with horizontal wells in Bohai Bay. Geosteering and real time reservoir characterization were used to reduce the uncertainty.
Reconciling Log-Derived Water-Saturation and Saturation-Height Function Results
Saturation-height functions (SHFs) play a key role in reservoir description and in quantifying oil in place. The functions must compare well with other sources of water saturation (Sw), such as core measurements and well-log interpretations. This study reconciles different sources of Sw.
To do more with less, standardization and automation will be key. Application of techniques honed in other industries need to be evaluated as part of the path toward standardized approaches.
Standardization and Replication in Redevelopment-Project Subsea-Tree Design
Successful rejuvenation of two declining fields was enabled through innovation in both engineering and procurement strategy.
A Novel Integrity-Assurance Approach for Qualification of Subsea Technologies
The deepwater industry uses technology qualification (TQ) as a tool to determine which safety barriers are needed, and what level of testing is required. Even without failure data from the field, a method has been developed to quantify the integrity of various components.
Thermal Effects on Subsea-Wellhead Fatigue During Workover Operations
Intervention and workover operations can significantly affect the structural integrity and fatigue life of subsea-wellhead systems. Methodologies for wellhead-fatigue analysis have improved, but have yet to account for thermal effects along the well. This study analyzes those thermal effects.
Subsea Hardware and Technology
Change. Look around. It is happening faster than most of us have seen in our entire careers. The market is driving change with a desperate insistence.
European Commission Strives Toward Reasonable Shale-Gas Regulation
Following years of deliberation, the European Union (EU) released a recommendation on unconventional hydrocarbons and a related communication in 2014. This paper traces the origins and development of these documents, which provide vital clues for the road ahead in European shale-gas regulation.
How the Petroleum Industry Can Learn From the Ebola Crisis of 2014
This paper reviews the Ebola outbreak from the viewpoint of an onshore and offshore petroleum operator, providing insight into the real threats the outbreak, and providing lessons learnt for industry operations elsewhere.
Creating a Safety Culture: What It Is and How To Get There
Safety culture can be distilled into nine characteristics predictive of safety outcomes. To improve safety performance and create lasting change in organizational culture, leaders can focus on developing 10 safety-specific leadership capabilities.
Operational Risk: Stepping Beyond Bow Ties
This paper presents a multiple-physical-barrier (MPB) approach to operational risk management by focusing on physical barriers and success paths that enable each barrier to perform its safety functions.
New Optical Gas-Imaging Technology for Quantifying Fugitive-Emission Rates
Optical gas-imaging is effective for visual identification of volatile organic compound (VOC) leaks. But it doesn't currently quantify the leak rate as required by regulations. This paper discusses work aimed at adding that quantification.
Making an E&P/Fisheries Management Plan Work in Ghana With Multiple Stakeholders
Ghana’s fishers and coastal communities have raised concerns over the effects of offshore oil exploration and production relating to the giant Jubilee field. This paper describes the process and results of the multistakeholder approach to solving marine-zone conflicts.
The Influence of Communication About Safety Measures on Risk-Taking Behavior
Risk-taking behavior is an important contributing human factor to incidents and is notoriously difficult to influence. This study examined how safety measures and uncertainty affected the risk-taking behavior of participants.
Service Company Explores Pathways To Make Driving Inherently Safer
This paper explores whether factors other than the driver can be influenced to increase overall driving safety. This is an application of the risk management approach of using fundamental design and layout to reducing the likelihood and severity of incidents.
Health, Safety, Environment, and Social Responsibility
The journey to an injury- and incident-free operation has many paths, and we can see by the different approaches that progress is being made.
Reservoir-simulation-model inputs are numerous, and uncertainty is pervasive—before, during, and after development. With the pressure to deliver results quickly, how do we find the right balance?
Project Tests High-Performance Cloud Computing for Reservoir Simulations
In upstream oil and gas, cloud computing is very immature because the industry has always been challenged by storage and computational capability. However, high-performance cloud computing may create an opportunity for smaller companies lacking infrastructure for scientific applications.
Simulation Analysis With Association-Rule Mining Plus High-Dimensional Visualization
Computational advances in reservoir simulation have made possible the simulation of thousands of reservoir cases in a practical time frame. This enables exhaustive exploration of subsurface uncertainty and development/depletion options.
Modeling of a Complex Reservoir Where the Normal Modeling Rules Do Not Apply
With the easy conventional oil in Argentina having been produced, one remaining way to find new oil in existing fields is to convert fields from primary or secondary production to secondary or tertiary production, respectively.
Use of Emulator Methodology for Uncertainty-Reduction Quantification
Because the uncertainty analysis is complex and time consuming, in this paper, a stochastic representation of the computer model, called an emulator, was constructed to quantify the reduction in the parameter input space.
Evaluation of Intermittent-Flow Behavior Upstream of Electrical Submersible Pumps
This work experimentally investigates the behavior of an intermittent multiphase liquid/gas flow that takes place upstream of an electrical submersible pump (ESP).
Run-Life Improvement by Implementation of Artificial-Lift-Systems Failure Classification
This paper describes a methodology for classification of artificial-lift-system (ALS) failures and addition of a commonly used root-cause failure classification.
Our problem is that we are dealing with multiphase, multicomponent fluids whose compositions change spatially and temporally inside imperfectly understood heterogeneous reservoirs whose characteristics also change spatially and temporally.
Methodology Evaluates Artificial-Lift Requirements Amid High Uncertainty
When evaluating artificial-lift requirements, sometimes data present uncertainties at the initial planning stage. This paper presents the integrated and structured methodology that was used to deal with high-uncertainty conditions.
A More-Rigorous Development Framework for Unconventional Reservoirs
This paper describes how seismic reservoir integration, advanced production analysis, and accurate nanoscale and 3D full-field simulations may address profitability issues and help oil companies to be more efficient in developing unconventional portfolios.
Production Performance in the In-Fill Development of Unconventional Resources
This paper presents results from the analysis of the effect of in-fill drilling on parent-well performance, and describes a simplistic approach to understanding the effect of the quest for operational efficiencies and economic cycles on development strategies.
New-Frontier Reservoirs I
With the current changes in the industry, are we seeing the demise of unconventional developments? No, clearly not. The unconventional industry is adapting to deliver the energy demands of the future despite the low oil price.
A Flexible “Well-Factory” Approach to Developing Unconventionals
This paper analyzes differing well-factory approaches to unconventional assets, with examples from the Wolfcamp unconventional oil play in the Permian Basin.
There remain a number of challenges with CO2 EOR. These include gravity override, poor sweep efficiency, and economic factors.
Chemical-Looping Combustion: An Emerging Carbon-Capture Technology
In chemical-looping combustion (CLC), oxygen is transferred from an air reactor to a fuel reactor by means of a solid oxygen carrier.
Viscosity and Stability of Dry CO2 Foams for Improved Oil Recovery
Carbon dioxide (CO2)/water foams are of interest for mobility control in CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and as energized fracture fluids or as hybrid processes that combine aspects of both processes.