Solid-Particles Flow Regimes in Air/Water Stratified Flow in a Horizontal Pipeline
The entrainment of solid particles in crude oil occurs during production from reservoirs with low formation strength. The stationary solid-particles bed at the horizontal pipe bottom can cause operational problems such as production decline, excessive pressure loss, equipment failure, erosion, and corrosion. Solid-particles deposition can be managed by operating above the critical solid-particles-deposition velocity, which is the velocity that maintains the continuous movement of particles at the pipe bottom. In this paper, a comprehensive analysis of solid-particle flow regimes in stratified flow in a horizontal pipeline is presented, which is a novel contribution because it is applied to multiphase flow. The effect of concentration on the solid-particle flow regimes and identification of the critical solid-particles-deposition velocities for various particle concentrations are also investigated.
The understanding of solid-particle flow regimes in pipelines for any given set of operational conditions is important for identifying the nature of particle interaction and movement. Experimental studies are conducted in a 4-in. horizontal pipeline for a stratified flow regime that uses air, water, and glass beads at relatively low solid-particles concentrations (<10,000 ppm). The effects of different experimental conditions, such as gas velocity, solid-particles concentration, and particle size are investigated in this study. Six main solid-particles flow regimes in horizontal air/water flow are identified, and can be distinguished visually: fully dispersed solid flow, dilute solids at wall, concentrated solids at wall, moving dunes, stationary dunes, and stationary bed. Therefore, the critical solid-particles-deposition velocities are determined on the basis of the transition between moving (concentrated solids at wall/moving dunes, as appropriate) and stationary (stationary dunes/bed, as appropriate) solid particles. The experimental data show that with small particle size, the critical solid-particles-deposition velocity is almost independent of concentration, while with larger particle sizes, the critical velocity increases with the concentration.
Construction Begins on Pipeline Connecting Finland and Estonia
The offshore gas pipeline will connect the gas markets of Finland and Estonia, enabling integration with the European Union’s common energy market
Shell/BHGE Study Paraffin Inhibitor Testing Techniques
Cold finger tests are a standard method for testing paraffin inhibitors, but there is no standard testing protocol, and sometimes different labs can see inconsistent results. Shell and BHGE studied the root causes of these issues.
Subsea 7 Completes Acquisition of Siem Offshore Contractors
Subsea 7 completed the acquisition of Siem Offshore Contractors along with a cable-lay vessel and a support vessel.
Don't miss out on the latest technology delivered to your email every two weeks. Sign up for the OGF newsletter. If you are not logged in, you will receive a confirmation email that you will need to click on to confirm you want to receive the newsletter.
01 June 2018