Solid-Particles Flow Regimes in Air/Water Stratified Flow in a Horizontal Pipeline
The entrainment of solid particles in crude oil occurs during production from reservoirs with low formation strength. The stationary solid-particles bed at the horizontal pipe bottom can cause operational problems such as production decline, excessive pressure loss, equipment failure, erosion, and corrosion. Solid-particles deposition can be managed by operating above the critical solid-particles-deposition velocity, which is the velocity that maintains the continuous movement of particles at the pipe bottom. In this paper, a comprehensive analysis of solid-particle flow regimes in stratified flow in a horizontal pipeline is presented, which is a novel contribution because it is applied to multiphase flow. The effect of concentration on the solid-particle flow regimes and identification of the critical solid-particles-deposition velocities for various particle concentrations are also investigated.
The understanding of solid-particle flow regimes in pipelines for any given set of operational conditions is important for identifying the nature of particle interaction and movement. Experimental studies are conducted in a 4-in. horizontal pipeline for a stratified flow regime that uses air, water, and glass beads at relatively low solid-particles concentrations (<10,000 ppm). The effects of different experimental conditions, such as gas velocity, solid-particles concentration, and particle size are investigated in this study. Six main solid-particles flow regimes in horizontal air/water flow are identified, and can be distinguished visually: fully dispersed solid flow, dilute solids at wall, concentrated solids at wall, moving dunes, stationary dunes, and stationary bed. Therefore, the critical solid-particles-deposition velocities are determined on the basis of the transition between moving (concentrated solids at wall/moving dunes, as appropriate) and stationary (stationary dunes/bed, as appropriate) solid particles. The experimental data show that with small particle size, the critical solid-particles-deposition velocity is almost independent of concentration, while with larger particle sizes, the critical velocity increases with the concentration.
GATE Energy Joins Ranks of Contract Awardees for Noble’s Leviathan Project
GATE Energy is the most recent contract awardee for Noble Energy’s Leviathan project offshore Israel. It will provide the commissioning of the production platform for the megaproject.
Shell Stands Down Emergency Response at Enchilada Platform
Shell reported it has not observed any signs of oil on the water associated with a fire on the Enchilada platform, located in the US Gulf of Mexico.
Understanding Risk in Flow Assurance Management
A BP flow assurance manager explains a methodology for determining and mitigating flow assurance risks.
07 November 2017
01 November 2017
14 November 2017
30 October 2017