Improved Paraffin-Deposition-Profile Estimation in Hydrocarbon Pipelines and Effective Mitigation Review
Flow of paraffinic hydrocarbon liquids within extended pipeline networks or wells, where the environment/bulk temperature is below the cloud point or wax-appearance temperature (WAT), could result in precipitation of wax from the bulk fluid. Precipitated wax crystals from crudes deposits on the inner pipe wall could lead to reduced flow area or even complete blockage and could present a costly problem in the production and transportation of petroleum products. Timely removal of such deposits is extremely important to avoid associated problems.
This paper illustrates a numerical approach to estimate the deposition profile and its effect on flow-related parameters. Later, the procedure is validated with field data from a North Sea offshore production facility. This paper also seeks to propose a feasible solution to avoid such flow-assurance issues; in doing so, current commonly practiced reduction and preventive methods are reviewed. Previously, providing thermal insulation with aerogel foam had proved to be the most effective option in preventing wax from precipitating. A relatively new approach is discussed in this paper, which allows for minimizing the usage of insulation material in an attempt to reduce the implementation cost of the proposed precaution. Theoretical implementation of the procedure was also conducted to identify its effectiveness, which was later found to be elimination of the deposition completely.
First Permian Crude Delivered From Cactus II Pipeline
Trafigura confirmed that it had begun shipments from the Permian to Corpus Christi via the pipeline, which has a 670,000-B/D capacity. Operator Plains All American announced last week that it had completed work on the pipeline.
Plains Adds Fee for New Pipeline, Cites Tariffs
In a filing with the US FERC, Plains All American Pipeline said it would begin charging shippers an additional fee on its Cactus II pipeline to offset higher construction costs incurred in the wake of US steel tariffs.
Is Optical Gas Imaging the New Solution for Methane Detection?
Thermal imaging helps operators maintain regulatory compliance on methane-emissions requirements. Optical gas imaging technology may be an answer in allowing for faster, more efficient inspections, but there are hurdles to its adoption. How can its widespread use become a reality?
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