Economics of Steam Generation for Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery
The thermal-enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) steam-generation projects in Persian Gulf oil fields are on such a large scale that they affect an entire country’s economic position. As such, the policies related to oilfield steam generation should be decided at the national level by use of the cost of the marginal fuel. This paper calculates the steam cost for three methods: once-through steam generator, once-through heat-recovery steam generator, and solar steam generator. Detailed performance and economic models of the steam-generation methods were created and used to calculate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and the fuel break-even (FBE) price. The environmental and economic burdens on the cost of steam generation are explored. The effect of fuel price on the cost of steam is also analyzed, with a focus on the marginal fuel price. Finally, the limitation of cogeneration in an isolated oil field, where the energy demand necessitates electricity-matched cogeneration, was analyzed. This limitation, along with the steam cost at the marginal fuel price, provides the decision maker with a steam-supply curve.
For the case analyzed in this paper, the cost of solar steam is lower than that of cogeneration or a simple boiler for fuel prices greater than USD 5/million Btu.
Changing the Mix: A New Approach to Polymers for Offshore EOR
Researchers from Chevron are looking into a new approach to understand the drivers of polymer hydration. How might this affect the design of mixing systems in the field, and could it affect offshore EOR applications?
Case Study: Design of Injection Facilities for CO2 Recovery
A pilot project demonstrates that facilities design plays an important role in providing sources of CO2 for the gas-handling process for injection into a carbonate formation as a tertiary recovery mechanism.
The Effect of CO2 Injection on Corrosion and Integrity of Facilities
The paper discusses the main factors affecting CO2 corrosion, provides an assessment of what to look for in major equipment, and details recommended material of construction and corrosion mitigation/control methods.
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