PEER REVIEWED PAPERS
Ecological and Environmental Management During the Hail 3D Transition-Zone Survey: Safe Working Practices Within a UNESCO World-Biosphere Reserve
The Hail 3D transition-zone seismic survey carried out by ADNOC is located in a UNESCO world-biosphere reserve. Effective environmental and ecological management throughout the project was attained through working procedures and monitoring programs.
Solid-Particles Flow Regimes in Air/Water Stratified Flow in a Horizontal Pipeline
The understanding of solid-particle flow regimes in pipelines for any operational conditions is important for identifying the nature of particle interaction and movement. In this paper, a comprehensive analysis of solid-particle flow regimes in stratified flow in a horizontal pipeline is presented.
Case History of Dehydration-Technology Improvement for HCPF Production in the Daqing Oil Field
High-concentration polymer flooding can improve oil-displacement efficiency but separation of oil/water mixture becomes more difficult because of emulsification. In this work, a case history of dehydration technology for HCPF production and lab investigation of emulsion behaviors are reviewed.
The Impact of Styles of Thinking and Cognitive Bias on How People Assess Risk and Make Real-World Decisions in Oil and Gas Operations
Awareness of the different styles of thinking can provide an understanding of the choices people make when assessing risk and making decisions. The purpose of this paper is to show how such knowledge can be operationalized and applied to real-world oil and gas operations.
A New Method To Detect Partial Blockage in Gas Pipelines
Natural-gas-infrastructure reliability is critical for the energy sector. When capitalizing on old pipelines to transport natural gas, operators run the risk of partial blockage. In this study, the authors develop a multirate test method to detect partial blockage in a gas pipeline.
Pressure-Minimization Method for Prediction of Two-Phase-Flow Splitting
Looped lines are used to reduce pressure drop and increase flow capacity, but information on the flow behavior or predictive methods are not available for these systems. Experiments at different flow conditions in a looped-lines system using different configurations are conducted in this study.
A Critical Review of Alternative Desalination Technologies for Smart Waterflooding
Smart waterflooding by tuning injection-water salinity and ionic composition has gained attention in recent years. In this study, desalination technologies are reviewed with the objective to develop potential water-treatment solutions that can most efficiently alter injection-water chemistry.
Managing Experimental-Data Shortfalls for Fair Screening at Concept Selection: Case Study To Estimate How Acid-Gas Injection Affects Asphaltene-Precipitation Behavior
This paper focuses on a numerical-modeling analysis of the acid-gas-injection (AGI) scenario in carbonate HP/HT reservoirs, and presents the way in which AGI impacts asphaltene-precipitation behavior.
Application of Plume-Cooling Technology To Solve a GTG Impingement Problem: A Case Study
The compact nature of offshore platforms makes the management of the exhaust from engines a concern from a health and safety standpoint. In this paper, the authors present a typical plume-impingement problem aboard an offshore platform and discuss the application of plume-cooling technology.
Safety for a Helicopter Load/Unload Operation on an Offshore Platform: Optimization From Several Viewpoints and the Psychological Aspects of the Marshaller
Helicopter operations are important in the offshore industry but accidents involving them can have fatal consequences. This paper focuses on risk mitigation during the loading/unloading task of a slickline/wireline job from various viewpoints, including the psychological aspects of the crew.
Applying Subsea Fluid-Processing Technologies for Deepwater Operations
Subsea processing is an evolving technology in ultradeepwater development and has the potential to unlock a significant amount of hydrocarbon resources. In this paper, the authors have reviewed the application of subsea systems in 12 deepwater fields and discussed the significance of each.
Underground Bacteria Generates H2S and Trips Control Panels
When panels in an instrument equipment shelter kept tripping and the occasional smell of H2S led to an investigation of the rationale. Although a rare occurrence, this paper presents a strategy for prevention through careful site selection.
CO2 Capture and Usage: Harnessing the CO2 Content in Natural Gas for Environmental and Economic Gains
The deployment of appropriate CO2-separation technologies for natural gas processing is viewed as an abatement measure toward global CO2-emissions reduction. Selection of the optimum technology requires special attentiion.
Experimental Investigation of Three-Phase Low-Liquid-Loading Flow
An experimental study was conducted by use of a 6-in.-inner-diameter facility to analyze three-phase stratified wavy flow in horizontal pipelines.
Design of a Cyclonic-Jetting and Slurry-Transport System for Separators
Oil and gas wells often produce sand or solids with the well fluids. Despite exclusionary well designs, these solids can cause equipment failure, completion problems, or changes in production. This paper offers a way to remove solids in separators.
Monitoring of Oil and Gas Pipelines by Use of VTOL-Type Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Use of unmanned aerial vehicles to monitor pipeline networks for theft and other issues is discussed.
Effectiveness of Bypass-Pigging Solutions in Multiphase-Flow Pipelines With Waxy Crude Oil: Evaluation and Innovative Solution
Bypass pigging has advantages over conventional approaches. Its application to multi-phase flow with high wax content crude is discussed.
On the Contradiction of Applying Rolled Threads to Bolting Exposed to Hydrogen-Bearing Environments
Hydrogen stress cracking of bolts can be a source of failure. This paper explores the risks of rolled threads in hydrogen environments.
Economics of Steam Generation for Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery
Identifying the appropriate fuel for thermal EOR projects in large Persian Gulf fields requires analysis of a variety of options, including solar, for power generation.
Process-Design Considerations for a Compressor Dry-Gas Seal-System Interface
Failure of a dry-gas seal in the compressor can result in plant outage and considerable revenue loss to the operating company. This paper discusses design considerations to minimize risk of failure.
Performance Testing of an Inline Electrocoalescer Device With Medium and Heavy Crudes
To support subsea processing of heavy crudes, an inline electrocoalescer was tested for separation of water droplets dispersed in the crude oil.
Innovative Assessments for Selecting Offshore-Platform- Decommissioning Alternatives
An ecosystem-based management program is described to assess the potential sensitivities and contribution of the platform as an artificial reef.
Batata 2 Remote Well Pad: Executing Sustainable Development at a Sensitive Amazon Basin Area— Decommission and Abandonment
After initial exploration, a prospect deep in the Amazon jungle was declared non-commercial. The authors discuss how the initial project planning contributed to the decommissioning effort by means of life-cycle planning.
Carbon Capture and Storage for Enhanced Oil Recovery: Integration and Optimization of a Post-Combustion CO2-Capture Facility at a Power Plant in Abu Dhabi
The authors discuss the results of a pilot project to capture post-combustion CO2 for purposes of EOR.
Risk-Based Analysis and Engineering of Safe Distances Between Occupied Structures and Processing Equipment
This paper presents a technique that results in an occupied structure being located properly and constructed to reduce the risk of harm to the occupants to a tolerable level.
Challenges in a Multidisciplinary Approach for Explosion Design for Floating Facilities
Floating LNG (FLNG) units have a higher risk of explosion than onshore plants because of the limited and congested environment on the ship. This paper focuses on proper design to address this hazard.
Integrated Project Delivery: A Paradigm Shift for Oil and Gas Projects in the UAE and the Middle East Region
The focus of this paper is how efficiencies affect schedule, with the recognition of the secondary effect on project cost. This paper also proposes integrated project delivery to enhance effectiveness.
Feasibility and Evaluation of Surfactants and Gas Lift in Combination as a Severe-Slugging-Suppression Method
Use of surfactants and gas lift in combination to suppress severe slugging were tested. Surfactants were able to suppress severe slugging for most of the cases, and gas lift helped significantly.
Cryogenic Tanks Recertification: Case Study for Operational-Life Extension
This paper provides a benchmarking of different cryogenic tanks in terms of operation life and type of containment (single- vs. double-containment tanks) in the LNG industry. The different options adopted to recertify these tanks are covered.
A Review of Engineering and Safety Considerations for Hybrid-Power (Lithium-Ion) Systems in Offshore Applications
Hybridization of power systems is known to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions, with lower fuel consumption. This paper reviews available technologies to serve as a selection guide for planning such systems.
An Improved Model for the Prediction of Pipeline Embedment on the Basis of Assessment of Field Data
This paper reviews the current methodology for assessing pipeline embedment against field data, in which underprediction of pipeline embedment could be critical to design integrity.
Espirito Santo: Design and Operational Experience of the Use of Steel Risers on a Turret-Moored FPSO
The floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) facility Espirito Santo, located offshore Brazil in the Parque das Conchas (BC-10) field, is the world’s first turret-moored FPSO facility to use steel risers for fluid transfer.
Results of the Field Operation of a Distributed-Flux Burner in a Heater Treater in a Northern Canada Heavy Oil Field: Thermal Performance and Firetube Life
This paper presents data from both pilot tests and field tests of a recent burner retrofit of a horizontal heater treater at an oil sands field in northern Canada.
System-Reliability Analysis by Use of Gaussian Fuzzy Fault Tree: Application in Arctic Oil and Gas Facilities
Reliability analysis helps identify bottlenecks, assess risk, improve availability, and optimize maintenance. The challenge in Arctic regions is the lack of data -- normal climate analogs may not apply.
Produced-Water-Treatment Systems: Comparison of North Sea and Deepwater Gulf of Mexico
Water treatment systems in the North Sea differ from those in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM). This paper provides a detailed understanding of these differences and provides insight into the design of water-treatment systems in general.
Optimizing Metal-Removal Processes for Produced Water With Electrocoagulation
Many oil and gas companies are pursuing fracture-flowback-water and produced-water recycling for subsequent drilling and fracturing operations. Removal of metals is important to success of these processes.
Upstream Offshore-Facility Weight-Growth Study
To help the industry understand offshore-facility weight predictability, IPA recently conducted a comprehensive study that sheds new light on facility weight performance and identifies the root causes of weight growth, providing guidelines for improving predictability.
A New Method for Leak Detection in Gas Pipelines
A simple, practical, and reliable method to detect a gas leak under the conditions of unknown inlet or outlet gas rate, or unknown inlet or outlet pressure, is highly desirable. This paper discusses such a method.
Degradation (or Lack Thereof) and Drag Reduction of HPAM Solutions During Transport in Turbulent Flow in Pipelines
Polymer flooding in sensitive areas can require the transport of polymer fluids over long distances. Conventional wisdom limits transport distance or degradation occurs. This paper argues that critical velocity, not distance, is the controlling factor.
Dynamic Plastic Deformation of Deepwater Steel Catenary Risers Under Extreme Cyclic Compressive Loading
Steel catenary risers (SCRs) on a large-heave-motion vessel are susceptible to compression in the riser touchdown zone (TDZ). In this paper, a finite-element-analysis modeling method is presented to simulate deformation, pipe ovality, and local pipe buckling.
Prediction of Heavy-Oil Viscosities With a Simple Correlation Approach
Thermal recovery often causes variations in heavy oil viscosity. Yet viscosity is key to recovery, reserves estimation, and ultimately project success. A correlation for predicting viscosity is presented.
Optimization of Fuel Consumption in Compressor Stations
Compressor stations often consume 3-5% of the gas they are transporting as fuel. How to minimize this fuel consumption in an optimal manner is the subject of this paper.
A Modular Subsea Direct-Current Electrical-Power System
Subsea power demand is growing to support various processing loads, including pumps and compressors. This paper presents a modular direct-current electrical-power system that is designed for use in a subsea field with medium or long step-out distance
Thermodynamic Performance Indicators for Offshore Oil and Gas Processing: Application to Four North Sea Facilities
Developing performance indicators that will provide meaningful comparisons across the wide variation in oil and gas platforms is important, since good indicators can drive optimal operations. But is is also complex.
Polymer-Flood Produced-Water-Treatment Trials
Polymer flooding has been used to enhance the production of oil from mature fields in Oman. This article discusses the trial of several approaches to improve the treatment of water produced from these fields.
Simplified Dynamic Models for Control of Riser Slugging in Offshore Oil Production
Riser slugging can restrict production and cause problems for downstream equipment. This paper discusses a simplified modeling approach to control of riser slugging.
Barzan Onshore-Gas-Facilities Construction: Attaining Excellence Through a Comprehensive SHE&S Management System
A rigorous SHE&S program on the Barzan Onshore Project tracked 211 deliverables on a monthly basis and led to 131 million man-hours worked without a lost-time incident from July 2012 to March 2014.
Fast Production Recovery of a Typhoon-Damaged Oil Field in the South China Sea
After severe damage in a typhoon, the Huizhou oil field in the South China Sea was back on production in 5.5 months. This paper reviews how this feat was accomplished.
Pneumatic Controllers in Upstream Oil and Gas
Natural-gas-actuated pneumatic-control equipment has recently become a focus area for regulators trying to reduce the quantity of actual pollutants and greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere.
Optimization Study of a Novel Water-Ionic Technology for Smart-Waterflooding Application in Carbonate Reservoirs
"Smart water" is needed for effective waterflooding in carbonate reservoirs. A novel water-ionic technology, comprising nanofiltration and reverse-osmosis membrane-based processes, was identified for optimization in this study.
Study on Severe Slugging in an S-Shaped Riser: Small-Scale Experiments Compared With Simulations
Severe slugging is characterized by large pressure fluctuations at the base of the riser and is accompanied by fluctuations in fluid delivery from the top of the riser. This instability has negative effects on downstream equipment.
Optimization of Integrated Template Structures for Arctic Subsea-Production Systems
This paper analyzes the various selection methods of integrated template structures (ITSs) for use in the Arctic environment. Operation and installation of subsea modules in the Barents Sea are also analyzed in this paper.
Analysis of Windows of Opportunity for Weather-Sensitive Operations
This paper presents a statistical analysis approach to weather windows of opportunity, which are defined as the time span over which the stringent, multiparametric conditions required by weather-sensitive marine operations (such as heavy lift, topside float over, and pipeline tie in) are met.
Mechanical Vapor Recompression for the Treatment of Shale-Gas Flowback Water
Used extensively by the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries, the mechanical-vapor-recompression (MVR) process is viewed as a reliable method for recovering demineralized water from concentrated brines. This paper reports on performance of an advanced MVR system in north-central Texas.
Multifaceted Approaches for Controlling Top-of-the-Line Corrosion in Pipelines
This paper reviews the mechanisms of initiation and the prevention of top-of-the-line corrosion (TLC). Recent research and developments are highlighted and validated to arrive at best practices for control of this significant corrosion manifestation.
GTL FPSO—An Alternative Solution to Offshore Stranded Gas
Roughly one-half of global gas reserves are considered stranded gas--uneconomical because of the remote location of potential markets, lack of economic transportation and infrastructure, or the lack of conversion technology. An FPSO with gas to liquids conversion is an option for stranded gas.
Debottlenecking Existing Offshore Production Facilities To Safely Extend Their Operation Capacities
Good early production caused an FPSO to reach the design topside limit with only five wells connected. A study was undertaken to determine how bottlenecks could be reduced to allow greater production without compromising process safety.
Innovative Solutions Enable Production Start of China’s First Marginal Subsea-Tieback Oil Field
Linhua4-1 was China’s first tieback subsea development project. To develop this marginal oil field, a number of technical challenges were overcome through a series of new technologies, and their successful development and implementation.
Design Method Combining API and ASME Codes for Subsea Equipment for HP/HT Conditions up to 25,000-psi Pressure and 400°F Temperature
This paper demonstrates a design methodology that combines the API and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code (BPVC) for designing an example subsea pressure containing component for HP/HT conditions greater than 15,000 psi and 250°F.
Flotation, Filtration, and Adsorption: Pilot Trials for Oilfield Produced-Water Treatment
In this study, a pilot plant with a capacity of 50 m3/d was used to conduct flotation, filtration, and adsorption trials for produced-water treatment at a crude-oil gathering facility.
An Evaluation of Risk of Hydrate Formation at the Top of a Pipeline
Water condensation and/or hydrate formation at the top of pipelines are serious design/operation considerations in pipelines. This paper reports the results of tests conducted in a new experimental setup constructed for investigating gas-hydrate risks in varied operational scenarios.
Experimental Investigation of Wellhead Twin-Screw Pump for Gas-Well Deliquefication
Onshore gas developments are often characterized by drilling, fracturing, and production of wells before low-pressure gas-gathering systems are in place. As well production declines, liquid-loading issues begin to appear. Use of a twin-screw pump to boost deliquefication was investigated.
Risk-Based Passive Fire-Protection Optimization
Passive fire protection (PFP) has been used as a method to avoid/delay global collapse of offshore installations. Location of PFP is often based on simplistic assumptions, standards, guidance, and methods that do not always consider the real response of the structure to fire.
Hybrid Approach by Use of Linear Analogs for Gas-Network Simulation With Multiple Components
This paper describes a series of linear analogs and a solution strategy to improve the accuracy of the Newton-Raphson method for simulating complex natural gas transmission networks.
Reassessment of Multiphase Pump on Field-Case Studies for Marginal-Deepwater-Field Developments
This paper focuses on the applicability of subsea processing technology employing multiphase pumps to develop marginal fields commercially. Analytical methods were used to evaluate the pumps, and the results were validated through case studies in specific fields.
Energy-Efficient Technologies for Reduction of Offshore CO2 Emissions
This paper discusses novel technologies for increasing the energy efficiency of offshore oil and gas platforms. Three case studies are in progress that are based on actual oil-producing platforms—two on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and one in the Brazilian basin.
Implementing a Deepwater-Pipeline-Management System
There are few deepwater-pipeline operators with expertise in pipeline repairs. This paper describes a strategy developed and implemented on deepwater-pipeline intervention, based on a deepwater operational experience built over a decade.
Improved Paraffin-Deposition-Profile Estimation in Hydrocarbon Pipelines and Effective Mitigation Review
This paper illustrates a numerical approach to estimate the deposition profile of precipitated wax crystals and its effect on flow-related parameters in pipelines. Options for avoiding these issues are also explored.
Simulation of Multiphase Fluid-Hammer Effects During Well Startup and Shut-in
In this study, software that is capable of modeling fully transient multiphase flow in wellbore and pipeline has been used to characterize the fluid-hammer effects of well shut-in and startup on the coupled subsurface and surface systems.
Use of the ALARP Principle for Evaluating Environmental Risks and Impacts of Produced-Water Discharged to Sea
As low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) is common for management of safety risks, but harder to apply to environmental risks. This paper explores the differences and proposes a modified method to support environmental risk analysis.
Engineering Aspects in the Design and Implementation of Onshore Smart Oil Fields
The smart-field concept is deployed through disseminating elements of tools and infrastructure integrated to bring a level of smartness that can improve the performance of an oilfield asset in a sustainable way. How this is accomplished can vary widely depending on the field.
Inaccuracy in Pipeline-Compressor-Station Construction-Cost Estimation
This paper is investigates installed cost overruns of pipeline-compressor-station projects, using data from more than 200 projects. Results of the analysis show that project size, capacity, location, and year have different impacts on individual component overruns.
Choice of Development Concept—Platform or Subsea Solution?
Valuation of the enhanced flexibility offered by platform-based development solutions and sequential subsea solution is difficult. This leads to the question: Are development solutions being selected without taking sufficient account of option values?
Treating and Releasing Produced Water at the Ultradeepwater Seabed
Technology is evolving to meet the challenges to automate water separation and purification in deepwater for environmentally safe discharge at the seabed. To solve these problems the best available solutions must be selected and the technology gaps must be identified and closed.
Experimental Study on Wax-Deposition Characteristics of a Waxy Crude Oil Under Single-Phase Turbulent-Flow Conditions
The effects of turbulence/shear and thermal driving force on wax-deposition characteristics were experimentally studied using a waxy crude oil from the Gulf of Mexico.
Optimal Design and Operation of Egyptian Gas-Transmission Pipelines
As natural gas pipeline systems have grown larger and more complex, the importance of optimization of design and operation of pipelines has increased. This paper examines the optimization issue for the Egyptian gas transmission pipeline network.
Novel Leak Detection Method for Sulfur Recovery Unit Condensers
Tube leaks present in a water-cooled sulfur recovery unit (SRU) condenser can lead to a variety of process issues, including corrosion and the oxidative formation of acidic species. This work devised a novel method to verify such leaks within a SRU condenser.
Acoustic-Induced-Vibration Case Study for WDDM Onshore Facilities
In gas applications with high-pressure drops and/or high-velocity gas flow, acoustic-induced vibration (AIV) occurs when very high sound levels are propagated in piping. This can induce fatigue cracking of the pipe and potentially catastrophic pipe failure.
A Simplified Mechanistic Model for an Oil/Water Horizontal Pipe Separator
A new methodology for oil/water horizontal pipe separator (HPS) design and performance prediction is developed. Separator diameter is determined on the basis of oil/water flow-pattern prediction. A batch separator model is adopted and modified to predict the separator length for desired quality.
The Braess Paradox and Its Impact on Natural-Gas-Network Performance
Paradoxical effects can exist when expanding the capacity of natural-gas-transportation networks. This paper derives conditions where it can be expected, how the effect can be masked, and provide analysis to support identification in larger-scale networks.
New Method To Estimate Surface-Separator Optimum Operating Pressures
Setting optimal surface separation pressures are crucial for maximizing the surface liquid production from the wellstream feed. Where separator tests are not available, empirical calculations are often used, but with limitations. A method suitable across many conditions is proposed.
HIPPS-Based No-Burst Design of Flowlines and Risers
A methodology is proposed for design of subsea flowlines and risers coupled with a subsea high-integrity pressure protection system (HIPPS) for fields with high shut-in tubing pressure (SITP).
Available Methodologies Concerning the Treatment and Removal of Sand From Pipelines and Associated Case Studies
This paper discusses the available methodologies for remediation of a pipeline affected by sand and presents examples where the discussed methodologies have been applied.
Considerations for the Application of Controlled In-Situ Burning
The burning of oil in place (in situ) on water is a viable means of mitigating the impact of marine oil spills. This paper examines decision criteria and safe practices for deploying this method in both icy and warm conditions.
Pipeline Integrity Assessment Using Probabilistic Transformation Method and Corrosion Growth Modeling Through Gamma Distribution
This paper presents a methodology to estimate the probability of failure of every individual corrosion defect and the residual likelihood of failure of an overall corroded pipeline segment after selected repairs, using structural probabilistic analysis.
Design of Gelled Fluid for Debris Removal in Subsea Pipeline
This paper presents the results of tests conducted to design a fast-breaking gelled fluid for a debris-removal operation in a long, large-diameter subsea pipeline in the Asia Pacific region. where traditional pigging was not an option.
Case Study—Calcium-Carbonate-Scale Inhibitor Performance Degradation Because of H2S-Scavenger Injection in Semoga Field
Semoga and Kaji fields experienced reservoir souring and suffered a history of calcium-carbonate (CaCO3) -scale cases before a proper scale-inhibition program was implemented. Problems with a free water knockout discovered continued scale issues, leading to investigation of the reasons.
Computational Fluid Dynamics-Based Study of an Oilfield Separator—Part II: An Optimum Design
This paper provides details of comprehensive computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) -based studies performed to overcome the separation inefficiencies experienced in a large-scale three-phase separator.
Trenching of Pipelines for Protection in Ice Environments
This paper highlights the issues and challenges surrounding pipeline trenching and burial in ice-gouge environments. The current state of practice is discussed along with the technology gaps that need to be addressed.
Numerical Simulation of Transient Flow in a Gas Pipeline and Tank
This paper shows that viscosity has a significant influence on gas transient flow in pipe- and tank-leakage evaluation. This led to the development of a methodology for more reliable evaluation of gas transient flow.
Computational Fluid Dynamics-Based Study of an Oilfield Separator—Part I: A Realistic Simulation
A realistic computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of a field three-phase separator has been developed. Further, a useful approach to estimating the particle size distribution in oilfield separators was developed. The predicted separation efficiencies are consistent with oilfield experience.
Integrity Maintenance of Petroleum Pipelines
In this paper, a data-driven model is applied to derive optimum maintenance strategy for a petroleum pipeline. The model incorporates structured expert judgment to calculate the frequency of failure, considering various failure mechanisms.
Evaluation of Scale Inhibitors in Marcellus High-Iron Waters
The high level of dissolved iron commonly present in the Marcellus waters of Pennsylvania and West Virginia adversely affects the ability of scale inhibitor to inhibit calcium carbonate scale. This study tests two new products under a range of conditions.
Hydrate Risk Assessment and Restart-Procedure Optimization of an Offshore Well Using a Transient Hydrate Prediction Model
This paper describes a gas-hydrate model for oil-dominated systems, which can be used for the design and optimization of facilities focusing on the prevention, management, and remediation of hydrates in flowlines.
Experimental Study of 3% Cr Tubing Steel in CO2 and CO2/H2S Corrosion Environment
Through a range of experiments the authors demonstrate that small amount of H2S can be beneficial in reducing corrosion in 3% Cr steel.
Twelve Steps to Engineering Safe Onshore Oil and Gas Facilities
This paper reviews the key areas for facility designers and engineers to include when designing facilities to ensure safe facilities. Use and incorporation of the principles outlined in this paper should enable engineers and designers to build safe facilities that reduce the risk of major incidents.
Acrolein Provides Benefits and Solutions to Offshore Oilfield-Production Problems
Offshore production systems can be impacted negatively by numerous problems attributed to bacterial activity, associated hydrogen sulfide and biogenic iron sulfides, and mercaptan production. Acrolein provides a distinctive all-in-one chemical solution to assist in resolving these problems.
Assessment of Deliverability of a Natural-Gas-Gathering and -Production System: Development of an Integrated Reservoir/Surface Model
The present work describes the development of a 1D steady-state isothermal reservoir/surface gas-pipeline-network model. The developed model is an extension of the general pipeline-network model in which the deliverability from the wells is calculated.
Flare-Gas Recovery in Tunisia—From Liability to Value
This paper describes the project evolution, from the first study to the implementable concept of energy production using the associated gas of two onshore facilities in Tunisia. Despite complex composition, high CO2, high H2S, and relatively low quantities, a solution was developed successfully.
Prediction and Experimental Measurements of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Viscosities During Alkaline/Surfactant Injections
In this paper, the authors report results from experiments as well as modeling of water/oil-emulsion rheology that can form during alkaline/surfactant/polymer injections for enhanced recovery.