Permian: Treating Produced Water for Discharge Reduces Injection
Operators in the Permian Basin are looking for new ways to handle the rising volumes of produced water coming out of the region without using saltwater disposal wells. One solution, treatment for discharge, could provide an efficient alternative.
Case Studies in Produced Water Treatment
Three papers selected from 2018 SPE ATCE look at the challenges and approaches to the treatment of increasing volumes of produced water.
Fit-for-Purpose Water Treatment in Permian Shale
Sourcing water for hydraulic fracturing, and disposing of produced water, are constraints and significant cost items in the Permian Basin. Some of the produced water can be treated and reused by using a water life cycle approach..
Permian Operators Squeezed by Growing Water Pressure
Finding water for hydraulic fracturing and then finding a use for it when it flows back are critical engineering problems to solve in the booming Permian Basin.
Different Basins, Different Produced Water Strategies
Water management for unconventional projects continues to evolve at a rapid pace. What are some of the universal trends industry is adopting to handle higher produced water volumes and increased demand, and how do local dynamics impact the adoption of these trends?
How Water Management for Shale Oil and Gas is Evolving
An overview of some of the trends and issues related to water management for tight oil and gas are discussed, including environmental, sustainability, and legislative issues associated with water handling for hydraulic fracturing.
Incorporating Reuse: The Next Frontier for Produced Water Management
As producers and third-party vendors navigate the logistical challenges of water management, the push toward greater reuse of produced water has gained steam. How close is the industry to 100% reuse?
Are Your Produced Water Decisions Based on the Best Economics?
Recycling produced water may not be the soundest economic decision for operators of hydraulic fracturing projects. A water logistics expert examines the design considerations companies must account for with full-cycle water management systems.
Apache Aims To Boost Produced Water Reuse in Permian
The rising oil production and produced water volumes in the Permian are expanding the scope and scale of recycling. Apache is targeting 50% of its frac water to be made up from recycled produced water this year.
Produced-Water Debottlenecking Improves Offshore Production
An operator in the western Gulf of Thailand retrofit two partial-processing water-management systems on mobile-offshore-production-unit platforms for bulk removal and treatment of produced water. Water debottlenecking increased oil production by 80% and reduced the infield transfer volume by 62%. Th
Predictive Models Optimize Produced Water Transport and Disposal
Predictive models may help in the estimation of produced water volumes and the optimization of the locations for water recycling and disposal facilities to reduce truck hauling distances.
The Savvy Separator: Physical Processes Behind Oil Droplet Coalescence During Water Treatment
By understanding the factors involved in oil droplet coalescence, the Savvy Separator engineer can assess the operational/chemical factors in the treatment system that are affecting droplet growth and make adjustments to enhance coalescence rates.
Oil-Droplet Removal From Produced Water by Use of Nanoparticles
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is a promising way to remove dispersed oil from produced water. In this study, the authors investigated the optimal operating conditions for MNPs and the mechanisms of MNP/oil attachments and magnetic separation.
URTeC: New Strategies Needed To Maximize Produced Water Storage, Usage
At the 2016 Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Barry Donaldson, vice president of global sales and marketing at Tetra Technologies, discussed possible cost-effective water management strategies.
Produced-Water-Treatment Systems: Comparison of North Sea and Deepwater Gulf of Mexico
Water treatment systems in the North Sea differ from those in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM). This paper provides a detailed understanding of these differences and provides insight into the design of water-treatment systems in general.
Optimizing Metal-Removal Processes for Produced Water With Electrocoagulation
Many oil and gas companies are pursuing fracture-flowback-water and produced-water recycling for subsequent drilling and fracturing operations. Removal of metals is important to success of these processes.
SPE Produced Water Handling and Management Symposium
The Produced Water Handling and Management Symposium will be held 20–21 May in Galveston, Texas.
A Comparison of Methods for Boron Removal From Flowback and Produced Waters
While storage and logistics are critical elements of the viability of water reuse, if the water chemistry is not fit for gel fracturing formulations, it will not matter how much is stored in centrally located impoundments.
Mechanical Vapor Recompression for the Treatment of Shale-Gas Flowback Water
Used extensively by the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries, the mechanical-vapor-recompression (MVR) process is viewed as a reliable method for recovering demineralized water from concentrated brines. This paper reports on performance of an advanced MVR system in north-central Texas.
Optimizing Water Storage in Oilfield Water Treatment
With inconsistent inlet water quality being the rule rather than the exception, sizing and operational considerations of the treatment system components must vary accordingly to make the most economic sense.
Flotation, Filtration, and Adsorption: Pilot Trials for Oilfield Produced-Water Treatment
In this study, a pilot plant with a capacity of 50 m3/d was used to conduct flotation, filtration, and adsorption trials for produced-water treatment at a crude-oil gathering facility.
Produced and Flowback Water Recycling and Reuse - Economics, Limitations, and Technology
The demands for the fresh water used in many hydraulic fracturing operations are placing pressure on water sources in some regions of the United States. Because of the high volumes of water needed for fracturing and competing demands availability of fresh water has decreased and costs have grown.
Water Management for Hydraulic Fracturing in Unconventional Resources - Part 5
This is the fifth article in a series covering water management in hydraulic fracturing in unconventional resources. The focus of this article is biological control. Additives to improve fracturing conditions can have negative effects on water treatment.
Use of the ALARP Principle for Evaluating Environmental Risks and Impacts of Produced-Water Discharged to Sea
As low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) is common for management of safety risks, but harder to apply to environmental risks. This paper explores the differences and proposes a modified method to support environmental risk analysis.
Water Management for Hydraulic Fracturing in Unconventional Resources - Part 3 Water Treatment Technologies: Coagulation/Flocculation and Electrocoagulation
This is the third article of a series on water management for hydraulic fracturing in unconventional resources. This month, water treatment technologies are introduced, beginning with the removal of suspended solids by coagulation/flocculation and electrocoagulation for recycling flowback fluids.
Treating and Releasing Produced Water at the Ultradeepwater Seabed
Technology is evolving to meet the challenges to automate water separation and purification in deepwater for environmentally safe discharge at the seabed. To solve these problems the best available solutions must be selected and the technology gaps must be identified and closed.
Water Management for Hydraulic Fracturing in Unconventional Resources—Part 2 Properties and Characteristics of Flowback Fluids
In this second article of a series covering water management in hydraulic fracturing (HF) in unconventional resources, the properties and characteristics of the flowback fluids are discussed, together with the general categories of technologies that are best suited to treat them.
New Water-Treatment Technologies Tackle Offshore Produced-Water Challenges in EOR
Enhanced oil recovery processes, particularly offshore, create challenges for produced water treatment. This option reviews technology options and current applications.
Produced Water Management Offers Value to Companies
Produced water has typically been viewed as a waste product to be disposed. A recent webinar explored ways that this waste can be turned into value through treatment and reuse. Available options vary with the quality of the produced water.
The Lowdown on Low-Sal Water Technology
Changing the salinity of injection water could make the difference in getting more out of existing wells.
How Does Low-Sal Water Work?
Using low-sal water for flood can add 30% to the amount of oil that can be recovered from a reservoir. What is the theory behind it?
Chemical and Mechanical Problems in Produced Water Treating Systems
Ted Frankiewicz' Distinguished Lecture presentation on “Diagnosing and Resolving Chemical and Mechanical Problems in Produced Water Treating Systems” was the subject of a recent webinar.
New Options for Produced Water Treatment
A recent webinar discussed current technologies to enable reuse of produced water in gas and oil shale developments.
Sulfate Removal—The Adoption of a Water Treatment Technology by the Oil and Gas Industry
The oil and gas industry is sometimes slow to adopt new technologies and other times quick to deploy a new approach. The decision whether to try something new weighs the perceived risks and rewards.
Evaluation of Scale Inhibitors in Marcellus High-Iron Waters
The high level of dissolved iron commonly present in the Marcellus waters of Pennsylvania and West Virginia adversely affects the ability of scale inhibitor to inhibit calcium carbonate scale. This study tests two new products under a range of conditions.
Global Workshop Series Addresses Water Handling Issues
Water handling is becoming increasingly important as a technical and economic tool for improved oil recovery and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects. A global series of workshops to address these issues has been planned.
A Historical Perspective on Produced Water Treatment
The author reviews advances in produced water treatment, particularly offshore, since the 1960s. Regulations on discharge quality have been a major driver in the improvement of treatment technology.
Handling Produced Water From Hydraulic Fracturing
The recycling of produced water and fracture flowback water for reuse in hydraulic fracturing is on the rise in the development of unconventional resource plays.
Produced Water Treatment: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
Produced water and its treatment and management are growing challenges in all producing regions.
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