Shell/BHGE Study Paraffin Inhibitor Testing Techniques
Cold finger tests are a standard method for testing paraffin inhibitors, but there is no standard testing protocol, and sometimes different labs can see inconsistent results. Shell and BHGE studied the root causes of these issues.
Paraffins and Hydrates: Overcoming the Hurdles in Subsea Tiebacks
As operators rely on longer subsea tiebacks, an upward trend in the number of plugs caused by paraffins and hydrates has been seen. New prevention and remediation methods are discussed to help solve these challenges.
New Tool Developed To Test Paraffin Deposition
A test method is being developed to screen paraffin chemistries in the presence of brine, closer resembling dynamic field conditions.
Improved Paraffin-Deposition-Profile Estimation in Hydrocarbon Pipelines and Effective Mitigation Review
This paper illustrates a numerical approach to estimate the deposition profile of precipitated wax crystals and its effect on flow-related parameters in pipelines. Options for avoiding these issues are also explored.
Experimental Study on Wax-Deposition Characteristics of a Waxy Crude Oil Under Single-Phase Turbulent-Flow Conditions
The effects of turbulence/shear and thermal driving force on wax-deposition characteristics were experimentally studied using a waxy crude oil from the Gulf of Mexico.
Waxy-Crude Production Management in a Deepwater Subsea Environment
Systematic experimental and modeling approaches to designing a safe operating strategy for a 5-km deepwater-subsea-flowline case study are presented to address unplanned shutdown and restart events for waxy-crude production.
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