Hydrocarbon-gas injection improves microscopic-displacement efficiency and generally acts as pressure maintenance; however, unfavorable mobility ratio can affect the ultimate recovery negatively because of viscous fingering and gravity override. This paper describes a gas-injection pilot that has been implemented in offshore Middle East carbonate reservoirs (a second pilot is described in the complete paper) to assess injectivity, productivity, macroscopic-sweep efficiency, flow assurance, and operational efficiency in a field that has a long water-injection history.
The carbonate field is part of the Lower Cretaceous Lower Lekhwair formation. The field is divided into A, B, and C reservoirs, 20 to 35 ft thick individually. Each reservoir is vertically separated by nonpay tight intervals of similar thickness, composed of argillaceous limestone, isolating each reservoir from the others. Depending on the reservoir, oolitic shoal facies can be more abundant. Near the flank area, the formation is water-wet, and, as one moves toward the crestal area, the formation becomes oil-wet.
The reservoir fluid is undersaturated at initial pressure of 4,200 psig at datum depth and a temperature of 220°F. Oil gravity is 40 °API, and oil contains 1–2 mol% carbon dioxide and an insignificant amount of hydrogen sulfide. All three reservoirs have common contact and similar oil properties, with a strong compositional gradient. Production from the field started in the late 1960s through natural depletion, which indicated weak aquifer support.
Miscible and Immiscible Gas-Injection Pilots in a Middle East Offshore Environment
10 May 2016