Offshore production systems can be impacted negatively by numerous problems attributed to bacterial activity, associated hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and biogenic iron sulfides (FexSy), and mercaptan (R-SH) production. Examples of these problems include microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC); underdeposit corrosion because of FexSy deposition; equipment fouling because of biomass accumulation; impaired oil/water separation, leading to poor water quality and overboard oil-in-water problems; and not achieving pipeline specification because of excess H2O and/or R-SH content.
Acrolein provides a distinctive all-in-one chemical solution to assist in resolving these problems. The key to this solution is four-fold: Acrolein scavenges H2S, it scavenges R-SH, it is a potent microbiocide, and it dissolves FexSy.
This paper details the use of acrolein in the context of an offshore application with respect to the issues and problems unique to an offshore environment. Acrolein treatment programs can provide effective production-odor control and can achieve pipeline specifications from the perspective of H2S and R-SH scavenging. The unique dual solubility of acrolein in oil and water enables it to penetrate and remove oil-coated FexSy solids and sessile bacteria from production systems. Because of its low minimum-inhibitory concentration, acrolein provides cost-effective biocide treatment not only in batch applications but also in continuous-treatment programs. Well-established application protocols using a closed delivery system minimize potential chemical exposure, an important health, safety, and environment (HSE) consideration. The high order of reactivity and biodegradability of acrolein lends itself well to usage in a sensitive offshore environment.
A series of case histories highlighting the benefits of using acrolein in offshore systems to mitigate related production problems is presented in this paper. Multiple benefits can be realized with the application of one product.