Integrated surveillance is critical for understanding reservoir dynamics and improving field management. A key component of the surveillance is areal monitoring of subsurface changes by use of time-lapse geophysical surveys such as 4D seismic. The complete paper reviews the advances in these technologies with recent examples from the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and deepwater Brazil.
4D seismic has played a pivotal role in monitoring offshore fields for some time. However, until recently, its application in the GOM had been limited, largely because the effects of the Loop Current and infrastructures make it difficult to repeat the feathering of streamers used in conventional 4D-seismic acquisition. The key for 4D success is to repeat everything in baseline and monitor surveys to make sure the time-lapse difference observed in the data reflects real subsurface changes rather than differences in data-acquisition conditions or processing work flows. To solve the challenge of streamer-positioning repeatability, an operator used ocean-bottom nodes (OBNs) to achieve highly repeated surveys at the Mars Field, and excellent 4D results were obtained. Since then, 4D seismic has been deployed successfully at the portfolio scale in the GOM and that operator’s 4D surveillance strategy has been changed from streamer seismic to ocean-bottom seismic (OBS), which includes OBNs and ocean-bottom cables....
Advances in 4D Seismic and Geophysical Monitoring of Deepwater Fields
01 March 2018