Wellbore position is computed from survey measurements taken by a measurement-while-drilling (MWD) tool in the bottomhole assembly (BHA). The MWD tool uses accelerometers and magnetometers to measure the Earth’s gravitational and geomagnetic fields. Knowing the direction of these two fields and using them as a frame of reference enable drillers to calculate inclination and direction (azimuth) of the wellbore. Local high-resolution in-field referencing (IFR) models have been produced for the Permian Basin that significantly improve the accuracy of MWD azimuth measurements.
Numerous error sources are associated with MWD-survey measurements, and each error source contributes in some form to the magnitude of uncertainty that propagates along the computed wellbore trajectory. The Industry Steering Committee for Wellbore Survey Accuracy (ISCWSA) developed a framework for quantifying the magnitude of uncertainty. The Operator’s Wellbore Survey Group (OWSG), an ISCWSA subcommittee, continued development on the original error model and published a set of instrument-performance models that enables the computation of EOU for specific surveying methods. This consolidated set is referred to as the OWSG set of tool codes. Fig. 1 above illustrates the difference between EOUs for standard MWD vs. advanced corrections using MWD with IFR and corrections for sag (MWD+IFR1+SAG).
Generally, one can see that the large uncertainty of standard MWD can be reduced by 11 to 38% by use of IFR, while further applying multistation analysis (MSA) can reduce the uncertainty by 50 to 61%. Vertical uncertainty can also be reduced by advanced survey-correction methods. Bending of the BHA brings the accelerometer out of alignment with the inclination of the wellbore trajectory. This effect can be corrected for by applying corrections for sag....
Magnetic Referencing and Real-Time Survey Processing Enable Tighter Spacing of Wells
01 May 2016