Bacteria that remain in wellbores after fracturing can cause corrosion, sludge, sour gas, and loss of permeability—all of which result in less-than-optimal production. When incorporated into produced or flowback-water-based fracturing fluids during the water-treatment process, the Weatherford CleanSure chlorine dioxide (ClO2) service kills active and dormant bacteria upon contact, using less than 1.0 ppm of residual ClO2. Because ClO2 is more powerful than conventional biocides, it is effective in lower amounts and concentrations. This minimizes impact on the pH of fracturing fluids and reduces operator costs by requiring fewer chemicals, fewer treatments, and less equipment to destroy bacteria. The CleanSure ClO2 service also reduces solid-soluble particles to water-soluble particles and oxidizes harmful contaminants including sulfides, manganese, and iron. This prevents formation damage and enhances formation permeability and wettability for the remaining life of the well. The US Environmental Protection Agency has recognized ClO2 as a safe water-treatment additive.
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