Kenics heat exchangers from Chemineer offer a highly efficient design consisting of streamlined Kenics static-mixer elements for superior performance compared with conventional straight, empty-tube heat exchangers. Conventional straight, empty-tube designs allow laminar buildup from the process fluid on the internal tube walls, which inhibits flow and diminishes the heat-transfer process. Kenics heat exchangers use static-mixer elements in each heat exchanger tube to greatly reduce the film buildup on the internal walls. Process fluid is pushed continuously from the center of each tube to the wall and back to the center. This eliminates thermal gradients and boosts the inside film coefficient. Product performance characteristics of the Kenics heat exchanger include a more-uniform, consistent transfer process; three to seven times greater heat-transfer rates than empty tubes; mixer elements that create a self-cleaning wiping action; minimization of fouling; surface renewal at the tube wall that reduces the chance of thermal degradation; plug-flow characteristics that produce uniform heat history; reduction of temperature gradients; and allowance for viscous materials to cool to the near-freezing point.