Formation Damage in Waterflooding, Produced Water Re-Injection and EOR

Production and Operations Reservoir Descriptions and Dynamics


Over the last decade, the scale of produced water re-injection (PWRI) in industry has increased tremendously.  PWRI is not only used for disposal purpose but also for voidage replacement and sweep in waterfloods. It is widely acknowledged that if injection under fracturing conditions is allowed, injection water quality specifications can be relieved significantly. However, injection under induced fracturing conditions does not resolve all injectivity issues. The productivity issues during waterflooding are water production, fines migration and oilfield scaling. Similar formation damage problems occur during low-salinity, smart and polymer flooding. Course materials (handouts, numerous exercises, etc.) will be made available to the attendees.


1. Introduction: Overview of the Types of Formation Damage, its Prevention and Remediation
2. Causes and Mechanisms of Well Injectivity and Productivity Damage
3. Mathematical Modelling and Laboratory Studies of Formation matrix Damage
4. Injectivity decline for waterflood and PWRI under matrix (non-fractured) injection conditions. Type curve analysis. Field cases. 
5. Water Injection under Fracturing Conditions: introduction and theoretical concepts. Field cases.
6. Injectivity decline and sweep for PWRI under induced fracturing conditions.
7. Low-salinity and smart waterflooding in sandstones and carbonates. Productivity decline due to fines migration. Injectivity decline. Laboratory and mathematical modelling. Upscaling – from lab to wells. Field cases.
8. Practical predictions of injectivity and productivity decline due to fines migration.
9. Prediction of formation damage due to sulphate scaling – laboratory and mathematical modelling.
10. Injectivity decline during polymer injection. Field cases.
11. Induced formation damage can enhance sweep during waterflooding and EOR.
12. Inducing formation damage for water-production decrease.
13. Decision Making in Water Management for waterflood and EOR.
14. Lessons learned (Brazil, Gulf of Mexico, Russia, Australia).

Course Length

2 Days

Learning Objectives

The course will provide an overview at awareness level of common formation damage issues in waterflooding, PWRI, and chemical EOR, with a focus on subsurface-related topics such as well injectivity, well productivity and sweep.

Who Should Attend

The course is aimed at drilling, production, and reservoir engineers, simulation and laboratory specialists involved in water flooding, EOR, drilling, and well stimulation.


Pavel Photo

Pavel Bedrikovetsky is an author of a seminal book in reservoir engineering and 230 technical papers in international journals and SPE. His research covers formation damage, waterflooding and EOR. He holds MSc in Applied Mathematics, PhD in Fluid Mechanics and DSc in Reservoir Engineering from Moscow Oil-Gas Gubkin University. In 1991-1994 he was a Visiting Professor at Delft University of Technology and at Imperial College of Science and Technology. From 1994 and until now Pavel is Petrobras Staff Consultant. He boasts 40-year industrial experience in Russia, Europe, Brazil and Australia. Currently he holds Chair in Petroleum Engineering at Australian School of Petroleum at the University of Adelaide. He served as Section Chairman, short course instructor, key speaker and Steering Committee member at many SPE Conferences. He was 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 SPE Distinguished Lecturer.