Crystalline silica is a common mineral found in the earth's crust. Materials such as sand, stone, concrete, and mortar contain crystalline silica. It is also used to make products such as glass, pottery, ceramics, brick, and artificial stone.
Respirable crystalline silica—very small particles at least 100 times smaller than ordinary sand you might find on beaches and playgrounds—is created when cutting, sawing, grinding, drilling, and crushing stone, rock, concrete, brick, block, and mortar. Activities such as abrasive blasting with sand; sawing brick or concrete; sanding or drilling into concrete walls; grinding mortar; manufacturing brick, concrete blocks, stone countertops, or ceramic products; and cutting or crushing stone result in worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica dust. Industrial sand used in certain operations, such as foundry work and hydraulic fracturing, is also a source of respirable crystalline silica exposure. About 2.3 million people in the US are exposed to silica at work.
Workers who inhale these very small crystalline silica particles are at increased risk of developing serious silica-related diseases, including:
To better protect workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica, OSHA has issued two new respirable crystalline silica standards: one for construction and another for general industry and maritime. OSHA began enforcing most provisions of the standard for construction on 23 September 2017 and will begin enforcing most provisions of the standard for general industry and maritime on 23 June 23.
Read the standards here and here.
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