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Extreme Limited-Entry Perforating Enhances Bakken Completions

This paper presents the evolution of a Bakken advanced completion design with the added enhancement of extreme limited entry (XLE) perforating. With this strategy, an operator has consistently stimulated more than 11 perforation clusters per stage. The high number of active clusters, or fracture-initiation points, has been measured directly with radioactive tracers and fiber-optic diagnostics and is validated through improved production relative to offset completions.

XLE

The technique, as the name suggests, pushes the level of perforation friction past 1,500 psi. Additional sources of pressure variations have been identified and can be summed up as the fracture-entry pressure. Fracture-entry pressure, defined as the pressure from immediately outside the perforations to the fracture tip, includes, but is not limited to, near-wellbore tortuosity, net pressure, stress shadowing, and fracture extension.

To advance the goal of evenly diverting stimulation fluid to all the fracture-­initiation points (clusters), the designed perforation friction must moderate perforation-/cluster-level pressure variations in the fracture-entry pressure. To achieve this, the magnitude of the sources of variability should be quantified and addressed with the completion and perforating design. Additionally, one must account for the dynamic fracturing process, within which most of the fracture-entry-pressure parameters, as well as the perforations, are changing as the stimulation progresses.

This article, written by JPT Technology Editor Chris Carpenter, contains highlights of paper SPE 189880, “Mining the Bakken II—Pushing the Envelope With Extreme Limited-Entry Perforating,” by Paul Weddle, SPE, Larry Griffin, SPE, and C. Mark Pearson, SPE, Liberty Resources, prepared for the 2018 SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 23–25 January. The paper has not been peer reviewed.
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Extreme Limited-Entry Perforating Enhances Bakken Completions

01 September 2018

Volume: 70 | Issue: 9

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